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ENVS 2210 (46)

Bee's Biology and management pages 1-50

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University of Guelph
Environmental Sciences
ENVS 2210
Ernesto Guzman

Page 110 Chapter 1 Bees from the Outside General External Anatomy Body Segment by Body Segment Head Thorax Abdomen Headmouthparts Five eyes of two kinds two large compound eyes and three smaller ocelli the antennae feelers organs of smell taste touch hearing the head is the sensory and feeding center Thorax made of three segments contains engine for movement five pairs of appendages three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings legs are for walking grippinglanding has toes and has three legs touching the ground at all times so you cant really push a bee overspecializations for harvesting pollen on legs wings extentions of body wall fore and hind wing act together as a single wingAbdomensix visible segments II to VII tucked inside the tip of the abdomen are the highly reduced segments that make up the sting apparatus in female bees and the male intromittent put between organ or endophallus 2040000 species of bees in the world bees can be thought of as specialized vegetarian wasps eat pollen not meat for proteins from flowers and also obtain nectar their energy for flying pollinatewhich is vital for human food and fibre productions some bees can be kept but most are truly wild animals bees are eukaryotic heterotrophic motile multicellular genetic material is DNA phylum Arthropoda comprises most of the animal species including bees Arthropods have a principle body cavity a true coelom and are segmented have specialized appendages skeletal muscle well developed nervous systemthey also have jointed legs and an exoskeletonExoskeletonexoskeleton have disadvantages being that they are encased in armour and cannot grow continually so to grow they must shed their exoskeleton and grow a new one and their exoskeleton also restricts how they get info from the outside world advantages to exoskeletonprotective also against lost water it is not entirely inflexible and provides support and attachments for muscles made of a chitin base a polymer of Nacetylglucosaminesome chitin is hard in back and some is flexible in wings moultingshedding the exoskeletonat first the chitin is soft and elastic and with time it darkens and hardens through contact with O2 in air this is called tanning or sclerotization young adults are pale and softstings are too flexible to be functional these bees are called callows What makes a Bee a Bee within the Arthropida is the Class Insectathree major body segments I Head the nervous and sensory centre II Thorax the locomotory center appendages 3 pairs of legs and 2 pairs of wings note that legs and wings are all locomotory appendages and they are not homologous III Abdomen the digestive reproductive and circulatory centresinternal organs mostly in abdomenover 30 Orders in the Class Insecta they end in the suffix ptera meaning wings in Greek ants bees wasps and sawflies are in the Hymenoptera membranewinged insects Hymenopterainsects with 2 pairs of membranous wings and an ovipositor modified into a s sting or drillthe Aculeata section of Hymenoptera include bees and wasps with ovipositors egglaying organs that are modified into stings even if the stings are nonfunctional and vestigial in some groups some wasps and bees are VERY similar bees belong to the hymenopteran Superfamily Apoidea and within that the Apiformes Apiformes have branched body hairs which are thought to be used for carrying pollenmost also have hind basitarsus part of the hind leg that is broader than the lower tarsal segments of the leg and a sting major difference bw bees and wasps are that bees are entirely herbivores getting nutrition from flowers as pollen and nectar whereas wasps are mostly carnivores
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