Textbook Notes (368,439)
Canada (161,878)
ENVS 4012 (14)
Wilfred (14)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 notes

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Environmental Sciences
ENVS 4012

Chapter 3: Social Cognition: How We Think about the Social World • Social cognition is how people think about themselves and social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions. • Two kinds of social cognition: o Automatic cognition – quick and effortless. o Controlled thinking – more effortful and deliberate. • Often, automatic and controlled modes of social cognition work very well together. On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking • Automatic thinking is thought that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless. People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with Schemas • Automatic thinking helps understand new situations by relating them to prior experiences. • People use schemas – mental structures that organize knowledge about social world. o Influence information we notice, think about, and remember. o Encompasses knowledge about many things – other people, ourselves, social roles, and specific events. • Schema influence way which we process information. o Evidence that information relevant to particular schema processed more quickly than information unrelated to it. • Gardner, MacIntyre, and Lalonde (1995): o English-speaking students to rate characteristics of various groups. Participants faster when rating stereotypical characteristics of each group than when ratings its nonstereotypical characteristics. • Kunda, Sinclair, Griffin (1997): o Given a label, we fill in blanks w/ all kinds of schema-consistent information. Stereotypes about Race and Weapons • When schemas applied to members of social group such as gender or race, they are referred to as stereotypes. • Payne, Shimizu, and Jacoby (2005): o People significantly likely to misidentify tool as gun when preceded by black face than when preceded by white face. • Correll, Park, Judd, and Wittenbrink (2002): o Participants likely pull trigger when person in picture was black, whether or not he was holding a gun. (“Shooter bias”) o These effects not limited to laboratory. • Eberhardt et al. (2004): o When crime object, such as gun, displayed on computer screen, white university students and police officers quicker to identify black faces than white faces. • Schaller, Park, and Mueller (2003): o Negative stereotype of blacks came mind more quickly for participants who seated in dark room, compared w/ participants who seated in brightly lit room. The Function of Schemas: Why Do We Have Them? • Schemas typically very useful for helping us organize and make sense of world and to fill in gaps of our knowledge. • Korsakov’s syndrome – difficulty forming schemas. • Important to have continuity, to relate new experiences to our past schemas, that people who lose this ability invent schemas where none exist. • As long as people have reason to believe schemas are accurate, perfectly reasonable to use them to resolve ambiguity. Schemas as Memory Guides • Fiske & Taylor (1991); Kunda (1999); Lenton & Bryan (2005): o Considerable evidence that people more likely remember information that is consistent w/ their schemas. • Barry Corenblum (2003): o Students attending school in Brandon, Manitoba, more likely remember positive behaviours performed by white child than Native child and negative behaviours performed by Native child rather than white child. o European-Canadian and Native-Canadian children showed these memory effects. • Schema-consistent details suggest schemas become stronger and more resistant to change over time. Which Students Are Applied? Accessibility and Priming • Social world full of ambiguous information open to interpretation. • Accessibility – extent to which schemas and concepts are at forefront of minds and therefore likely be used when making judgements about social world (Higgins, 1996; Sanna & Schwarz, 2004; Todorov & Bargh, 2002; Wyer & Srull, 1989). • Schemas accessible for three reasons: o Some schemas chronically accessible due to past experience meaning schemas are constantly active and ready to use to interpret ambiguous situations (Chen & Anderson, 1999; Dijksterhius & van Knippengerg, 1996; Higgins & Brendl, 1995; Rudman & Borgida, 1995). o Sc
More Less

Related notes for ENVS 4012

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.