Textbook Notes (368,439)
Canada (161,878)
ENVS 4012 (14)
Wilfred (14)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 notes

4 Pages
121 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Environmental Sciences
Course
ENVS 4012
Professor
Wilfred
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 3: Social Cognition: How We Think about the Social World • Social cognition is how people think about themselves and social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions. • Two kinds of social cognition: o Automatic cognition – quick and effortless. o Controlled thinking – more effortful and deliberate. • Often, automatic and controlled modes of social cognition work very well together. On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking • Automatic thinking is thought that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless. People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with Schemas • Automatic thinking helps understand new situations by relating them to prior experiences. • People use schemas – mental structures that organize knowledge about social world. o Influence information we notice, think about, and remember. o Encompasses knowledge about many things – other people, ourselves, social roles, and specific events. • Schema influence way which we process information. o Evidence that information relevant to particular schema processed more quickly than information unrelated to it. • Gardner, MacIntyre, and Lalonde (1995): o English-speaking students to rate characteristics of various groups. Participants faster when rating stereotypical characteristics of each group than when ratings its nonstereotypical characteristics. • Kunda, Sinclair, Griffin (1997): o Given a label, we fill in blanks w/ all kinds of schema-consistent information. Stereotypes about Race and Weapons • When schemas applied to members of social group such as gender or race, they are referred to as stereotypes. • Payne, Shimizu, and Jacoby (2005): o People significantly likely to misidentify tool as gun when preceded by black face than when preceded by white face. • Correll, Park, Judd, and Wittenbrink (2002): o Participants likely pull trigger when person in picture was black, whether or not he was holding a gun. (“Shooter bias”) o These effects not limited to laboratory. • Eberhardt et al. (2004): o When crime object, such as gun, displayed on computer screen, white university students and police officers quicker to identify black faces than white faces. • Schaller, Park, and Mueller (2003): o Negative stereotype of blacks came mind more quickly for participants who seated in dark room, compared w/ participants who seated in brightly lit room. The Function of Schemas: Why Do We Have Them? • Schemas typically very useful for helping us organize and make sense of world and to fill in gaps of our knowledge. • Korsakov’s syndrome – difficulty forming schemas. • Important to have continuity, to relate new experiences to our past schemas, that people who lose this ability invent schemas where none exist. • As long as people have reason to believe schemas are accurate, perfectly reasonable to use them to resolve ambiguity. Schemas as Memory Guides • Fiske & Taylor (1991); Kunda (1999); Lenton & Bryan (2005): o Considerable evidence that people more likely remember information that is consistent w/ their schemas. • Barry Corenblum (2003): o Students attending school in Brandon, Manitoba, more likely remember positive behaviours performed by white child than Native child and negative behaviours performed by Native child rather than white child. o European-Canadian and Native-Canadian children showed these memory effects. • Schema-consistent details suggest schemas become stronger and more resistant to change over time. Which Students Are Applied? Accessibility and Priming • Social world full of ambiguous information open to interpretation. • Accessibility – extent to which schemas and concepts are at forefront of minds and therefore likely be used when making judgements about social world (Higgins, 1996; Sanna & Schwarz, 2004; Todorov & Bargh, 2002; Wyer & Srull, 1989). • Schemas accessible for three reasons: o Some schemas chronically accessible due to past experience meaning schemas are constantly active and ready to use to interpret ambiguous situations (Chen & Anderson, 1999; Dijksterhius & van Knippengerg, 1996; Higgins & Brendl, 1995; Rudman & Borgida, 1995). o Sc
More Less

Related notes for ENVS 4012

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit