ENVS Page 279.docx

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Environmental Sciences
Course
ENVS 2210
ENVS Page 279-297
Beekeepers’ Rewards
- Beekeepers work super hard and expect money and satisfaction in return
- Honey is legit cause its sweet, medicinal purposes, humans have ancient
reverence for honey
- Bees wax part of ancient traditions: cosmetics, meds, waterproofing, lubricating
- Pollen, royal jelly Propolis (bee gum) and venom have value in therapy
o Collection and sale of venom used for medical bee sting therapy and
desensitization to allergies
- Queen rearing is specialized occupation, you nee do have intimate understanding
of history of honeybees
o Small market for bee brood as food for people and other animals
- Beekeepers who provide pollinations services to growers must assure the grower
knows that colonies are strong and active
- Global and international concern for demise of pollinators
Honey
- Recognized and appreciate the most
- Honeybees add enzymes from salivary glands at time of nectar collection
o Water evaporated from nectar and final amount of water in honey varies
depending on climate, temp, humidity
Amount of water in honey important in quality control and for
assessing likelihood of fermentation
- Honey = variable: taste, colour, aroma, texture depending on region, source of
sugary forage
- Flora nectar is most important source of honey
- Honey types marketed can reflect floral source (clover honey, blueberry honey
ex) or can be seasonal blend like summer or mid spring etc.
o Type of way honey is prepared or obtained also reflected like liquid honey
Crystallization of honey can be controlled so its sold as a solid
Creamed honey spreads easily without dripping from bread
- Honey also sold in combs
o Section comb honey is produced in wooden fames inserted into the
beehive
o Cut comb is cut form frames
o Chunk comb honey is attractive but not often seen, so chunks are placed in
jars and then liquid honey poured in to fill
o Most honey sold as bulk liquid honey for processing by honey packers
How it reaches the shelves of supermarkets and food industry
- Industrial standards for honey quality and grading:
o Moisture content
<18.6% Grade A (described as fancy)
20% Grade C (described as standard)
o Colour by Pfund Scale and based on light transmission:
Water white
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Extra white- clover
White
Extra light amber
Light amber
Amber
Dark amber- buckwheat
- Moisture content measure by refractive index which is as light passes through
some solutions it is bent, so the extent to which the light is bent/refracted depends
on amount of sugar present
o Units are brix or % sugars so the higher the quality the clearer the honey
is, darker honey is poorer quality
o Turbidity is the converse of clarity, so low turbidity indicates careful
handling and processing
- Honey is dense and it’s a supersaturated solution of sugars so it may granulate
- Honey from humid areas like the tropics ferment fast because bees are unable to
evaporate moisture from honey to produce standard grade honey
- Honey is viscous so it flows slowly, as concentration increases the viscosity
increases
- As temp of honey drops, honey becomes more viscous
o Units for viscosity are poise
o Viscosity also depends on the floral source and sugar constituents
Sage honey more viscous than clover honey
- Honey should be kept at high temperatures (above 50 deg. C)
- Chemical composition of honey varies b/c of the origins of the nectars
o Odour is from flowers
- Sucrose abundant in floral nectars and broken into glucose and fructose by
invertase that is secreted by salivary glands
o Glucose is sugar the crystallizes to form granulated and creamed honey
- If honey has ratio of glucose to water of more than about 1, then honey begins to
granulate
- Fructose gives honey characteristics of flavour sweet, doesn’t granulate
- Organic acids are part of reason that honey is acidic, pH of honey range 3.6-4.2
so honey would be sour if wasn’t for its high sugar content
- Mineral content of honey reflects elements of soil and nectars of the region
o Mineral content higher in darker honeys
- Minor presence of proteinaceous materials, pigments, bees’ wax and so on
provide distinct texture, taste, aroma, and colour to honeys
- Thixotropy tendency of a liquid to form a gel, so the presence of colloidal
substances causes gelling in honey
- Pollen grains present in all honeys and contribute to flavour and aromas
o Melissopalynology tests honey so its first diluted then you obtain a pellet
and examine under microscopre and pollen grains are identified
- High concentration of sugars prevents growth because sugars draw water by
osmosis
- Honey is high energy food and prevents fatigue, aids digestion, protects from
infection, treats wounds
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Bees’ Wax
- Natural waxes are not pure compounds, they are mix of long chain fatty acids
- Bees wax is secreted by workers 9-17 days old and used by colony to construct
combs, comes from four pairs of wax glands on underside of the abdomen
- Bees wax is costly for bees to make
- Honeybees eat 6.5-9 kg of honey to make 1 kg of wax
o Its synthesized from sugars of honey eaten by bees and requires protein for
production of enzymes to catalyze the processes
Synthesized in the fat body
- Wax-making bees quite young, they fill themselves with honey and hang in
clusters on the comb
- Most used for candle making, cosmetics, medicinal ointments, candlelight
lubrications, sealing, adhesives, polishes etc.
- Bees wax many useful physical properties because it doesn’t mix or absorb, can
form protective layer to make impermeable surface
o Becomes plastic at 32 deg. C. can be formed by bees chewing on it at
usual temperatures in the hive
o Melting point 61-66 deg. C and solidifies 60-63 deg. C
When its molten it can be handled without much risk of burning so
can be used in liquid form for molding, making foundation, and
sealing
Its soluble in ether, benzene and chloroform
- Bees’ wax collected in various ways, highest qual originates from capping of
honey comb collected during extraction
o Wax can be salvaged from old or damaged combs but its dark and requires
filtering and bleaching before can be re-used
- Bees wax is natural absorbent for many pesticides so quality control is crucial for
wax destined for pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses
- Highest quality bees wax didn’t originate from industrialized and highly
agricultural world, beeswax cake are durable and easily transported
- Bumblebee wax softer than honeybee
o Bumblebees mix pollen with wax to give strength in neat construction
Pollen
- Individual pollen grains are male gametophytes of flowering plant
o Tiny rains that range from smooth to highly ornamented with textural
patterns and spines, some dry and others oily
- Germinating pollen grains produce pollen tube that grows through the stigma into
the style and eventually to the ovary of the plant
- While pollen tube is growing, one of the nuclei inside divides to form two sperm
nuclei, so when those are released into the ovary, double fertilization occurs
o One nucleus joins with egg nucleus to form zygote and then embryo
o The other combines with other cells of the ovule to form the endosperm,
the endosperm becomes nutrient storing tissue in the seed and when the
seed germinates it feed the growing embryo
- Bees harvest pollen
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Document Summary

Beekeepers work super hard and expect money and satisfaction in return. Honey is legit cause its sweet, medicinal purposes, humans have ancient reverence for honey. Bees wax part of ancient traditions: cosmetics, meds, waterproofing, lubricating. Pollen, royal jelly propolis (bee gum) and venom have value in therapy: collection and sale of venom used for medical bee sting therapy and desensitization to allergies. Queen rearing is specialized occupation, you nee do have intimate understanding of history of honeybees: small market for bee brood as food for people and other animals. Beekeepers who provide pollinations services to growers must assure the grower knows that colonies are strong and active. Global and international concern for demise of pollinators. Honeybees add enzymes from salivary glands at time of nectar collection: water evaporated from nectar and final amount of water in honey varies depending on climate, temp, humidity. Amount of water in honey important in quality control and for assessing likelihood of fermentation.

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