chapter 5 summary.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Human Development Chapter 5 - Toddlerhood Typical Changes in Physical Growth in Toddlerhood -loose “baby fat” -the rest of the body will grow faster than the head - growing during the first six months is usually the same in developing and developed countries, after age six developed countries start to lag in development because of lack of protein - lack of protein makes children in developing countries vulnerable to disease and early death - Kwashiorkor: protein deficiency leads to a range of symptoms such as lethargy, irrability, and thinning hair, often the body swells with water, and especially the belly- these children may be getting enough starch but not enough protein - Kwashiorkor lowers the effectiveness of the immune system making toddlers more vulnerable to disease; early damage to physical and cognitive development is likely to be permanent - Toddlers need a diet with micronutrients - The most crucial micronutrient deficiency worldwide is iodine- 1/3 of the world has iodine deficiency especially Africa and South Asia - lack of iodine inhibits cognitive development Brain Development - what most distinguishes early brain development is the steep increase in synaptic density, the number of synaptic connections among neurons, these connections multiply immensely in the first 3 years, toddlerhood is when peak production of new synapses is reached in the frontal lobe(the part of our brain that is the location of many of our most distinctive human cognitive qualities such as reasoning, planning, creativity) - new synapses in the frontal cortex are produced at the mind-boggling rate of 2 million per second-more than a trillion by age 2 - this peaks at the end of toddlerhood, followed by many years of synaptic pruning - EEG (electroencephalogram) measures the electrical of the cerebral cortex - fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) requires a person to lie stil inside a machine that uses a magnetic field to record changes in blood flow and oxygen use in the brain in response to different kinds of stimulation, such as music- unlike EEG fMRI can detect activity in any area of the brain not just the cerebral cortex Sleeping -sleep declines from 16-18 hours a day in the neonate to about 15 hours a day by their first birthday -toddlers episodes of night-waking increase from 18 to 24 months of age, in part due to teething of molars - in traditional cultures children sleep with their mothers until the next child is born, they then sleep with older siblings Motor Development -toddlers begin to walk, climb, run, jump -toddlers in traditional cultures are restricted to movement as they are always held to keep them out of danger such as fires - advances in motor development include holding a cup and building a tower of blocks - in toddlers third year they can brush their teeth with little assistance Toilet Training -children vary widely with toilet training and most pediatricians believe it is best to be patient with toddler’s progress toward toilet training - most toddlers show readiness between 18-30 months of age - in traditional cultures most children learn controlled elimination through observing and imitating older children Weaning - breast feeding for 2-3 years has been the most typical human custom - if breastfeeding only takes place for a few weeks or months weaning is usually easy, the longer one breastfeeds the more the infant will resist when trying to wean - weaning in traditional cultures consists of sending the toddler to a relative’s household for awhile or coating the mother’s breast with an unpleasant substance- bitter tasting herbs Cognitive Development in Toddlerhood: Piaget’s Theory - according to Piaget, the ability for mental representations develops in the second half of the second year and is the basis for important aspects of later cognitive functioning, including problem solving and language - objective permanence- A not B error - deferred imitation- is the ability to repeat actions observed at an earlier time - Piaget proposed that this started at about 18 months- but research has shown it starts much earlier - Deferred imitation of facial expressions has been reported at the earliest of 6 weeks of age - Mental representations- Piaget’s first stage of sensorimotor development in which toddlers first think about the range of possibilities and then select the action most likely to achieve the desired outcome Vygotsky’s Cultural Theory of Cognitive Development - unlike Piaget and most other cognitive theorists, Vygotsky emphasized the cultural basis of cognitive development in childhood - his theory is often referred to as sociocultural theory - Two of his most influential ideas are the zone of proximal development and scaffolding - Zone of Proximal Development is the difference between skills or tasks that children can accomplish alone and those that are capable of preforming
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