Chapter 1 (Section 1 and 2).docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Chapter 1 (Section 1 and 2) Human Development Today and its Origins  Human development – way people grow and change across the life span; includes people’s biological, cognitive, psychological and social functioning  Culture – total pattern of a group’s customs, beliefs, art and technology  Globalization – increasing connections between different parts of the world in trade, travel, migration and communication Humanity Today: A Demographic Profile  The most striking demographic feature of the human population is the sheer size of it o 7 billion threshold was surpassed just 12 years later, in early 2011  Total fertility rate (TFR) – in a population, the number of births per woman o TRF is currently 2.8, which is substantially higher than the rate of 2.1 that is the replacement rate of a stable population o TRF has been declining sharply for over a decade and will decline to 2.1 by 2050 if current trends continue Variations Across Countries  Nearly all population growth in the decades to come will take place in the economically developing countries  Nearly all wealthy countries are expected to decline in population during this period and beyond, because they have current fertility rates that are well below replacement rate  Developed countries – refer to the most economically developed and affluent countries in the world, with the highest median levels of income and education o Current population of developed countries is 1.2 billon, about 18% of the total world population o Nearly all developed countries are expected to decline in population between now and 2050, except for the US which is expected to increase from 310 million people currently, to 439 million people by 2050 o US is following different path for 2 reasons:  Has TFR of 2.0, which is slightly below replacement rate of 2.1, but higher than TRF in most other developed countries  US allows more illegal immigration than most other developed countries and there are tens of millions of undocumented immigrants there – increase in population between now and 2050, will be entirely from immigration o Cultures of developed countries tend to be based on individualistic values, such as independence and self-expression  Developing countries – countries that have lower levels of income and education than developed countries but are experiencing rapid economic growth, as they join the globalized economy o Current population of developing countries is about 5.8 billion, about 82% of the world’s population o Developing countries tend to prize collectivistic values, such as obedience and group harmony o Within these countries, there is often a sharp divide between rural and urban areas, with people in urban areas having higher incomes and receiving more education and better medical care o Traditional cultures – term used to refer to people in the rural areas of developing countries, who tend to adhere more closely to the historical traditions of their culture than people in urban areas do.  Tend to be more collectivistic than other cultures are, in part because in rural areas close ties with others are often an economic necessity Cultural Focus: Incredible India!  Current population of India is 1.2 billion, making it the second most populous country in the world  By 2050, it will have more than any other country – 1.5 billion people  Family closeness is highly valued in India, and most households are multigenerational  Most marriages are arranged by parents and other respected family members  Caste system – inherited social hierarchy, determined by birth o Indians believe in reincarnation, and this includes the belief that people are born into a caste position in the social hierarchy that reflects their moral and spiritual conduct in their previous life Variations Within Countries  All developing countries are less wealthy than developed countries  Most countries today have a majority culture – within a country, the cultural group that sets most of the norms and standards and holds most of the positions of political, economic, intellectual and media power  Contexts – the settings and circumstances that contribute to variations in pathways of human development, including SES, ethnicity, gender, as well as family, school, community, media and culture  Socioeconomic status (SES) – is often used to refer to a person’s social class, which includes educational level, income level and occupational status  In most developed countries today, the differences are relatively blurred – men and women hold many of the same jobs, wear many of the same clothes and enjoy many of the same entertainments  Minority ethnic groups may arise as a consequence of immigration  In many developed countries, most of the ethnic minority groups have values that are less individualistic and more collectivistic than in the majority culture Human Origins and the Birth of Culture  Ontogenetic development – characteristic pattern of individual development in a species  Phylogenetic development – the development of a species Our Evolutionary Beginnings  Natural selection – evolutionary process in which the offspring best adapted to their environment survive to produce offspring of their own  The evolutionary line that eventually led to humans is known as the hominid line  Most important difference between early hominids and other primates was the development of bipedal locomotion, or walking on two legs  About 3.5 million years ago, the hominid line split into two, with one line eventually dying out and the other line of Homo species leading to modern humans  Most striking and important change during this period was the size of early Homo’s brain, which became over twice as large as the brain of early hominids  Hunter-gatherer – social and economic system in which economic life is based on hunting (mostly by males) and gathering edible plants (mostly by females)  As the Homo species continued to evolve, it developed the ability to make tools and control fire  Another evolutionary change during this period was that the size of the teeth and jaws diminished, because cooked food was easier to eat than raw food  By 200,000 years ago, the early hominid species had evolved into our species, Homo sapiens – species of modern humans The Origin of Cultures and Civilizations  Physically, Homo sapiens has changed little from 200,000 years ago to the present  Upper Paleolithic period – period of human history from 40,000 to about 10,000 years ago, when distinct human cultures first developed o Art appeared for the first time o Humans began to bury their dead, sometimes including art objects in the grave o Trade took place between human groups o Cultural differences developed between human groups, as reflected in their art and tools o Rapid acceleration in development of tools, including bow and arrow o First boats invented, allowing humans to reach and populate Australia and New Guinea  Neolithic period – era of human history from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago, when animals and plants were first domesticated o Humans broadened food sources by cultivating plants and domesticating animals o Time of the last ice age  Final historical change that provides the basis for how we live today began around 5,000 years ago with the development of civilization o Civilization – form of human social life, beginning about 5,000 years ago, that includes cities, writing, occupational specialization, and states o State – centralized political system that is an essential feature of a civilization o Why did civilizations and states arise? – as agricultural production became more efficient, not everyone in a cultural group has to work on food production, which allowed some members of group to be concentrated in cities, away from food production areas, where they could specialize as merchants, artists, musicians etc. Historical Focus: The Sorcerer of Trois Freres  Upper Paleolithic period, from 40,000 to 10,000 years ago, was a crucial era in human phylogenetic (species) development and a time of extraordinary changes in how people lived o Period when cultural differences between human groups first began – cultural differences evident in art  Cave of Trois Freres o One of the most extraordinary of all caves, in Ariege, France o Located at the heart of a labyrinth, over a mile long and descending more than a half a mile beneath the ground o Includes a figure about 15ft above the floor, that is different from all the others – part man and part beast, or rather part beasts; only figure in cave that is painted with black paint, as well as engraved  Figure resembles costumed men that anthropologists have observed in recent times among hunter-gatherer cultures  Shamans – religious leaders believed to have special powers and special knowledge of the spirit world; common in traditional cultures today Human Evolution and Human Development Today  How we develop today is based partly on our evolutionary history  Researchers working in the field of evolutionary psychology claim that many other characteristics of human development are influenced by our evolutionary history, such as aggressiveness and mate selection  Evolutionary psychology – branch of psychology that examines how patterns of human functioning and behavior have resulted from adaptations to evolutionary conditions  A second important fact to note about our evolutionary history – biologically we have changed little since the origin of Homo sapiens about 200,000 years ago, yet how we live has changed in astonishing ways  Once we developed the large brain that is the most distinctive characteristic of our species, we became capable of altering our environments; so that it was no longer natural selection alone that would determine how we would live, but the cultures we created  Even different groups of early Homo sapiens seem to have lived more or less alike before the Upper Paleolithic period, as hunters and gatherers in small groups  Once humans developed the large brain we have now, it enabled us to survive in any environment by inventing and learning new skills and methods of surviving and then passing them along to others as part of a cultural way of life Ancient Conceptions of Development  Oldest known conception of the life course is the Dharmashastras – the sacred law books of the Hindu religion, first written about 3,000 years ago o 4 stages of a man’s life, each lasting about 25 years in an ideal life span of 100 years:  Apprentice (ages 0-25)  comprises childhood and adolescence; stage in which a boy is dependent on his parents, as he grows up and learns the skills necessary for adult life  Householder (ages 26-50)  young man has married and is in charge of his own household; time of many responsibilities; providing for a wife and family to taking care of elderly parents to engaging in productive work  Forest dweller (ages 51-75)  begins when a man’s first grandson is born; religious ideal is for a man to withdraw from the world and literally live in the forest, devoting himself to prayer and religious study and cultivating patience and compassion; those who remained within society are supposed to begin to withdraw from worldly attachments (ending sexual life, decline in work responsibilities, transfer of household responsibilities to the sons of the family)  Renunciant (ages 75-100)  goes farther than forest dweller in rejecting worldly attachments; purpose of life in this stage is simply to prepare for the end of this life and entry into the next  Another conception of life stages, proposed by Solon, a philosopher in ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago o Life span fell into 10 seven-year segments lasting from birth to age 70:  Ages 0-7  stage of being “unripe”  Ages 7-14  signs of approaching manhood “show in the bud”  Ages 14-21  his limbs are growing, his chin is “touched with fleecy down” and the bloom of his cheek is gone  Ages 21-28  now young man “ripens to greatest completeness” physically, and “his worth becomes plain to see”
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