FRHD 1010 Textbook Notes Chapter 1.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Scott Schau

Human Development – Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Chapter 1 – A Cultural Approach to Human Development Section 1 – Human Development Today and Its Origins Humanity Today: A Demographic Profile Variations Across Countries Developed Countries Economically developed and affluent countries, with the highest median levels of income and education Developing Countries Lower levels of income and education than developed countries but are experiencing rapid economic growth Cultural differences between developed and developing countries Individualistic Cultural values such as independence and self-expression Collectivistic Cultural values such as obedience and group harmony Traditional culture A rural culture that adheres more closely to cultural traditions than people in urban areas do Variations Within Countries - Most countries today have a majority culture - Also occurs in the settings and circumstances of individual lives (contexts) - Gender - Ethnicity - Socioeconomic status (SES) Human Origins and the Birth of Culture Ontogenetic Characteristic pattern of individual development in a species Phylogenetic Pertaining to the development of a species Our Evolutionary Beginnings - Natural selection: evolutionary process in which the offspring best adapted to their environment survive to produce offspring of their own - Hominid line: evolutionary line that led to modern humans Bipedal locomotion Increase in brain size - The larger brains of early Homo babies meant that babies were born less mature, resulting in a longer period of infant dependency, which may have made it difficult for females to accompany males on hunting expeditions - This is how the hunter-gathered way of life developed The Origins of Cultures and Civilizations Upper Paleolithic Period of human history from 40 000 to 10 000 years ago, when Period distinct human cultures first developed Neolithic Period Era of human history from 10 000 to 5000 years ago, when animals and plants were first domesticated Civilization Form of human social life, beginning about 5000 years ago, that includes cities, writing, occupational specialization and states Section 2 – Theories of Human Development Ancient Conceptions of Development Conceptions of Human Development in Three Traditions Dharmashastras (Hindu) - Four stages, each lasting 25 years Solon (Ancient Greece) - Seven year segments lasting until 70 years old Talmud (Jewish) - Goes up to 100, but in smaller segments Understanding Traditional Conceptions of Life - Preparation for life is made in youth, skills and expertise are gained in adulthood, and wisdom and peace are the fruits of old age - The difference in how the life span was divided remind us that for humans, the life span is not really divided into clear and definite biologically based stages Scientific Conceptions of Human Development Freud’s Psychosexual Theory Sexual desire is the driving force behind human development Age Period Psychosexual Stage Main Features Infancy Oral Sexual sensations centered on the
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