FRHD 1010 Chapter 3: Chapter 3

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Growth in Infancy Norm: An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurments of many individuals with a specific group or population Head sparing: A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth. The rbain is the last part of the body that is damaged by malnutrition Brain Development Neurons: One of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially in the brain Cortex: The outer layer of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling and sensing involves the cortex Preforontal cortex: The area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specialized in anticipation, planning and impulse control Axon: A fibre that extends to from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impules from that neuron to the dendritie of other neurons Dendrite: A fibre that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons Synapse: The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the other neurons Neurotransmitter: A brain chemical that carriers information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrities of a receiving neuron Transient exuberance: The great but temporary increase in the number of dendrities that develop in an infants brain during the first two years of life Pruning: When applied to brain development, the process by which unused connections in the brain atrophy and die Plasticity: The ability to be modified or changed Shaken baby syndrome (sbs): A life threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forefully shaken back and forth; a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections Self righting: The inforn drive to remedy a developmetal deficit; literally, to retrun sitting or standing upright; after being tipped over. People of all ages have slef righting impulses, for emotional as well as phsycial imbalances One of the consequences of brain maturation is the ability to sleep through the night- new borns cannot do this REM (Rapid eye movement) sleep- A stage of sleep chracterzied by flickering eyes behind closed lid, dreaming and rapid brain waves Key Points: -Weight and height increase markedly in the first 2 years; the norms are three times the babys birth weight by age 1 and 30 cm taker than the birth height by age 2 -Brain development is rapid during infancy, particually developemt of the axons, dendrites and synapses within the cortex Since experience shapes the infants brain, the infant environment plays an important role; pruning eliminates unused connections Where and how much infants sleep is shaped by brain maturation and family practices Co-sleeping: A custom in which parents and their children (usually an infant) sleep together in the same room The Sense Sensation: The response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tounge, nose) when it detects a stimuls Preception: The mental processing of sensory information whn the brain interprets a senasation Binocular vision: The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner to see one image Motor skills: The learned abilities to move some part of the body in action raning from a alrge leap to a flicker of the eyelid ( the word motor refers to the move of muscles) Gross motor skills: Physical abilities involving large movements. such as walking and jumping (the word gross means large) The dynamic systems underlying motor skills have 3 interacting elements 1. muscle strength 2. brain maturation 3. practice Fine motor skills: Physcial abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hanfs and fingers, such as drawning and picking up a coin Pincer movement: The use of the thumb and forefinger to pick up objects (happens towards the enf of the first year) The entire package of sensations and motor skills furthers three goals 1. social interaction 2. comfort 3. learning Key points - All the senses function at birth, with hearing the most acute sense and vision the least developed - Every sense allows perception to develop and furthers social interaction, as caregivers are recognized by sight, touch, smell and voice - Gross motor skills follow a genetic timetable for maturation; they are also affected by practice and experience - Fine motor skills also develop with time and experience, combing the sense as part of a dynamic system Immunization: A process that stimulates the bodys immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease. Immunization may be accomplished either naurally (by having the disease) or through vaccination (often by having an injecting) Breast milk is the best. Babies who are exclusively breast fed are less often sick. It is a balance of nutrition. Breast milk has micronutrients that are not found in formula. Less infant illness (allergies), less childhood asthma, bettwe vision, less likely to become obese Protein calorie malnutrion- A condtion in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind. This deprivation can result in several illnesses, severe wight loss and even death Stunting- The failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition Wasting: The tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of malturtion Marasmus: A disease of severe protein calorie malnutrition during infancy in which growth drops, body tissues waste away, and the infant dies Kwashiork
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