FRHD 1010 Chapter 5: ch 5

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Body Changes Growth Patterns As you grow the centre of gravity moves from the chest to the belly Increases in weight and height accompany this growth. Over each year of early childhood, well-nourished children gain about 2kg and grow about 7cm. By age 6, the average child in a developed nation: -weights between 18-22kg -Is at least 100cm tall -Has adult like body proportions Nutritional Challenges Nutrition at this age is very important for brain development Young children need high fat diets Up until the age of 2, abot 50% of the total calories should be dedicated to fait. After 2 this number should be decreased to 30% Overweight The cultural practice of enourgaing to eat has turned from protective to destructuce Obesity in Canada, noted that childhood obesity has been proven to increase the risk of obesity among adults, which in turn can lead to the early development of serious medical condtions such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure 34% of amercians were obese compared to 24% in Canada They are increasing Childhood obesity seems to have dangerous effects on a persons physical, emotional and social well being for years to come. Heart disease and diabetes are becoming epidemic as overweight children become overweight adults Nutritional Deficiencies In developing nations, the lack of micronutrients is often serve due to a lack of variety of healthy foods. Obsessions: Just right: The tendency of children to insist on having tings done in particular way. This can include clothes, food, bedtime routines and so on After 5, rigidity fades Oral health: Health Canada notes that breast milk and fruit juice can also lead to tooth decay in young children since the sugars will combine to create plaque **read eliminating lead** pg 180 The Canadian society pointed out that death rates from unintentional injuries among children and teens are 3 to 4 times higher in Aboriginal communities than elsewhere There are 6 recommendations to reduce the number of deaths among Aboriginal children 1. Focus on surveillance 2. improve education 3. Strengthen advocacy: cooperate among federal, provincial and territorial government in developing a national injury prevention strategy 4. Reduce barriers 5. Evaluate initiatives 6. Provide resources Injury control (or harm reduction): Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling and preventing dangerous activities; these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not ranfom and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place Harm Reduction Three levels of harm reduction apply to every childhood health and safety issue (1) Primary prevention: actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease or abuse (universal immunization, and less pollution are examples of primary prevention (2) Secondary prevention: Is more epecific, averting harm in high risk situations or for vulnerable individual. For instance, for children who are genetically predisposed to obesity, secondary precention might mean exlysie breastfeeding for 6 months, no soft drinks or sweets in the kitchen for nayone, and frequently play outside (3) Tertiary Prevention: begins after harm has occurred, limiting the potential damage. For example, if a child falls and breaks an arm, a speedy ambulance and a sturdy cast are tertiary prevention Tertiary prevention is most visible, but primary precnetion is most effective. Key Points: Young children continue to grow and develop motor skills, eating and playing actively -Hazards include eating too much of the wrong foods, environmental chemicals that are linked to diabetes and other health problems later on , and food allergies -Young children natural energy and sudden curiosity makes them vulnerable to injury -Primary and secondary prevention of harm begin long before injury, while restrictions on lead and other pollutants (primary) and measures to reduce harm to young children (secondary) The Brain Those funcitons that distinguish us from apes begin in infancy but develop after age 3, enabling quicker, better coordinated and more reflective thought 2-6- neurological increases are notable in the cortex region where planning, thinking, social awareness and language occur. Prefrontal cortex: planning, prioritizing and reflection occurs there Speed of Thought Mylelination: the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that dpeeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron Seed of thought from axon to neuron becomes pivotal when several thoughts and actions must occur in rapid succession. Preservation: the tendency to preserve in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time (prefrontal cortex) Connection Hemispheres Corpus collosum: a long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the braon and allows communication between them Lateralization: literally “diseness” referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa read page 187* Emotions of the Brain Limbic system: the major brain region crucial to the development of emotional expression and regulation; its three main areas are the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus, although recent research has found that many other areas of the brain are involved with emotions Amygdala: a tiny brain structure that registers emotions, partilarly fear and anxiety Hippocampus: a brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially memory for locations Hypothalamus: A brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activiate other parts of the brain and body Key points: The prefrontal cortex develops in early childhood and beyond, allowing the planning and analyzing that comprise executive processing Myelination speeds mental processi
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