chapter 9.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD* 4/3/2013 6:16:00 PM Chapter 9 Definition  VO2 Max: ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs; also called maximum oxygen update  Cardiac Output: quantity of blood flow from the heart  Morningness: preference for going to bed early and waking up early  Eveningness: preference for going to bed late and waking up late  Social Control: restraints on behaviour imposed by social obligations and relationships  Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL): government program in which young people obtain driving privileges gradually, contingent on a safe driving record, rather than all at once  Binge Drinking: consuming five or more drinks in a row for men, four in a row for women  Unstructured Socializing: socializing with friends without any specific goal or activity; includes behaviour such as riding around in a car for fun, going to parties, visiting friends informally, and going out with friends  Postformal Thinking: according to some theorists, the stage of cognitive development that follows formal operations and includes advances in pragmatism and reflective judgment  Pragmatism: theory of cognitive development proposing that postformal thinking involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situation  Dialectical Thought: according to Basseche, a kind of thinking in emerging adulthood that involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have some merit  Reflective Judgment: capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments, theorized to develop during emerging adulthood  Tertiary Education: education or training beyond secondary school  Identity Versus Identity Confusion: in Erikson’s theory, the crisis of adolescence, with two alternative paths, establishing a clear and definite identity, or experiencing identity confusion, which is a failure to form a stable and secure identity  Identity Status Model: model for researching Erikson’s theory of identity development, classifying identity development into four categories: diffusion, foreclose, moratorium, or identity achievement  Bicultural Identity: identity with two distinct facets, for example one for the local culture and one for the global culture, or one within ones ethnic group and one for others  Stereotype: belief that others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group  Cohabitation: unmarried romantic partners living together  Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI): infection transmitted through sexual contact  Unemployment: work status of adults who are not in school, are not working, and are looking for a job  Social-Networking Website: website that allows people to establish and maintain electronic contact with a wide social group  Text Messaging: form of communication on mobile phones that involves typing a message on the screen and sending it  Digital Device: electronic device that allows contact via phone and text message as well as access to the internet, videos, television and direct video conversation Textbook Notes: The Emergence of Emerging Adulthood  Emerging adulthood – young adulthood – adulthood  Median Age for marriage in developed countries; 30 for women, higher for men (age for parenthood is similar)  Reasons for increased ages for entering marriage and parenthood: o Invention of birth control pill 1964, meant that young people no longer had to enter marriage in order to have a stable sexual relationship o Years devoted to pursuing education and training for an occupation o Opportunities available to women  Great deal of social pressure   Today in developed countries, young women exceed young men in educational attainment and have a wide range of opportunities in the workplace that they did not have before Five Features:  Five characteristics that distinguish emerging adulthood from other age periods 1) the age of identity explorations 2) the age of instability 3) the self-focused age 4) the age of feeling in-between 5) the age of possibilities  These five characteristics develop before emerging adulthood and continue afterward, but during they reach their peak  Most distinctive characteristic of emerging adulthood is the age of identity explorations. o This is an age when people explore various possibilities in love and work o When trying out these different possibilities they develop a more definite identity o Understanding of who they are, what their capabilities and limitations are, what their beliefs and values are and how they fit into the society around them st  Eric Eirkson = 1 to develop the idea of identity, issue was mainly in adolescence but now mainly in emerging adulthood  Explorations of emerging adulthood also make it the age of instability  As exploring different possibilities in love and work, it makes life often unstable  Residential changes (move away from home, to become independent, live with love one)  The 20’s are the decade of life when people are most likely to change residential  Emerging adulthood is also a self-focused age  In between adolescents (reliance on parents and young adults long- term commitments in love and work)  During these years emerging adults focus on themselves as they develop the knowledge, skills, and self-understanding  Make independent decisions  Self-focused; not selfish, less egocentric than adolescents and more capable of taking the perspectives of others  Learning to stand alone as a self-sufficient person  Age of feeling in between, no longer an adolescent but not fully an adult  late 20’s and early 30’s reached adulthood  on the way to adulthood but not there yet is “in between” feeling  Age of possibilities  high hopes and great expectations  dramatic change (eg, turning their life in a dramatically different direction) The Cultural Context of Emerging Adulthood:  Europe is the region where emerging adulthood is longest and most leisurely o Entering marriage and parenthood is around 30 o Most affluent, generous, egalitarian societies in the world o (eg. Governments pay for education, finding jobs, unemployment benefits, housing support) o long history of individualism, self development and leisure  Asian cultures  Shared history emphasizing collectivism and family obligations  Emerging adults in US and Europe consistently rank financial independence the most important marker of adulthood  Emerging adults with Asian culture emphasize becoming capable of supporting parents financially the most important (fell obligated to take care of their parents)  Many emerging adulthoods with distinctive cultural characteristics  Split between whether urban and rural areas experience emerging adulthood  Young people in Urban areas such as China and India are more likely to experience emerging adulthood (marry later, have children later, maintain more education)  In Rural areas minimal schooling, marry early, little choice of occupation  Possibilities for emerging adulthood to spread in developing countries Physical Changes of Emerging Adulthood  18 years old people reach their full height  changes of puberty are over  reproduction  strength and endurance continue to grow into 20’s  illness rates are low  most automobile and substance abuse  bones continue to grow in density The Peak of Physical Functioning:  emerging adulthood is the life stage of peak physical functioning, when the body is at its highpoint of health, strength and vigor  Physical stamina is often measured of maximum oxygen uptake or VO2 max: ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs o Peaks in the early 20’s  Cardiac output: quantity of blood flow from the heart  Reaction time is faster in early 20’s  The peak ages (physical functioning) vary depending on the sport o Swimmers youngest (late teens) and golfers oldest (early thirties)  Emerging adulthood is life span with least physical illness (no longer vulnerable to diseases to the illnesses and diseases of childhood, and not yet vulnerable to diseases such as cancer and heart disease)  Emerging adulthood is a healthy time of life (excluding poor nutrition, lack of sleep, high stress)  Highest types of injury, death, disease because of behaviour Sleep Patterns and Deficits:  Sleep patterns effect cognitive functioning and emotional well-being  college students = delayed sleep phase syndrome o poor sleep patterns  poor sleep is related to depression and anxiety  poor sleep also causes cognitive deficits in attention, memory, concentration and critical thinking  people vary in their morningness (going to bed early, waking up early) and eveningness (going to bed late, waking up late)  most emerging adults lean towards eveningness, not morningness  change with age, hormonal changes  sleep experts recommend; (sleep hygiene)  waking at the same time each day  getting regular exercise  taking late-afternoon naps  limiting caffeine intake  avoiding excessive alcohol intake Risk Behaviour and Health Issues  emerging adulthood is a time of life where many take risks  because emerging adult is the low point of social control: restrains on behaviour imposed by social obligations and relationships. - they are more likely to take certain ki
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