Chapter 5- Families.doc

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010

Chapter 5 Toddlerhood Section 1- Physical Development • Toddlerhood is a time of dramatic advancement in both gross and fine motor development Bodily Development • Become leaner and longer • Kwashiorkor- protein deficiency in childhood, leading to systems such as lethargy, irritability, thinning hair, and swollen body which may be fatal if not treated • Micronutrients- dietary ingredients essential to optimal physical growth, including iodine, iron, zinc and vitamins A, B12, C and D • Lack of iodine inhibits cognitive development Brain Development • Steep increase in synapticdensity-number of synaptic connections among neurons in the brain, peaks around 3 years of age • After the peak of synaptic density, a long period of synaptic pruning begins. This is when connections between used neurons become stronger and unused connections deteriorate. Connections become fewer but more efficient • EEG(electroencephalogram)- device that monitors brain activity while a person lies inside a machine that uses a magnetic field to record changes in blood flow and oxygen use in the brain in response to different kinds of stimulations. • Found an increase in overall brain activity from 18 to 24 months • FMRI(functionalmagneticresonanceimaging)- method of monitoring brain activity in which a person lies inside a machine that uses a magnetic field to record changes in blood flow and oxygen use in the brain in response to different kinds of stimulations. • Can detect activity in any part of the brain, not just cerebral cortex Sleep and Teething • Sleep declines from 16-18 hours a day in neonates to about 12-14 hours of sleep by second birthday • Night sleeping and day waking patterns become more normal • Waking up in the middle of the night increases in this stage due to teething • Resurgence of teething between 13-19 months when molars come in • Toddlers develop a more definite sense of self by age 2, so they become more aware of the separation from parents Sleeping alone is rare in traditional cultures • Gross Motor Development Begin to walk by themselves by 11 months • • Can stand on one leg(briefly) and climb by 15 months • Gross motor skills continue to develop as toddler gain flexibility and balance • Better at using visual information to adjust walking and running in response to changes in surfaces Chapter 5 Toddlerhood Age(months) milestone 9-16 Stand alone 9-17 Walk without support 11-19 Stand on one leg 11-21 Climb stairs, onto beds, chairs, etc 13-17 Walk backwards 14-22 Run 17-30 Jump in place 16-30 Walk on tiptoes 22-36 Walk up and down stairs Fine Motor Development • The second year of toddlerhood is marked by extension of skills Age(months) Milestone 7-15 Hold writing instrument 8-16 Coordinate actions of both hands 10-19 Build tower with 2 blocks 10-21 Scribble vigorously 12-18 Feed self with spoon 15-23 Build tower with 3-4 blocks 20-28 Draw straight line on paper 24-32 Brush teeth 26-34 Build tower with 8-10 blocks 29-37 Copy circle Chapter 5 Toddlerhood Toilet Training • It is best to wait until children show signs of readiness(usually between 18-30 months) to begin toilet training. Sign include: • Staying dry for an hour or two during the day • Regular bowel movements at the same time each day • Increased anticipation of the event- expressed through looks or words • Directly asking to use the toilet or wear underwear • Process continues over several months • My still occasionally have an ‘accident’ • By age 2-3 in tradition cultures children are surrounded by older children and they learn controlled elimination from observing other children Weaning • In most cultures people breastfeed for 2-3 years, much shorter in modern cultures • Weaning- cessation of breast feeding • Sometimes hard for child to make change to other forms of eating Section 2- Cognitive Development Piaget’s final two sensory stages Sensorimotor Stage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions • Occurs age 12-18 months • Toddlers intentionally try out different behaviors to see what the effects will be • Perform actions repeatedly Sensorimotor Stage 6: Mental Representations • Occurs age 18-24 months • Mental representations- toddlers first think about range of possibilities and then select action most likely to achieve desired outcome • Object Permanence • Learn to avoid the A-not-B error • Search errors still occasionally happen up to age 4 or 5 • Deferred Imitation • Occurs around 18 months • DeferredImitation-Ability to repeat actions observed at an earlier time Crucial ability in learning, because we can observe something important to know and then • later repeat it • Categorization Become able to put every different house into the larger category of ‘house’ • • Becomes the basis for language, because each noun and verb represents a category Chapter 5 Toddlerhood Vygotsky’s Cultural Theory of Cultural Development • Sociocultural theory • Social because children learn through interactions Cultural because what children need to know is determined by culture • • Zone of Proximal Development • ZoneofProximalDevelopment- Difference between skills or tasks that children can accomplish alone and those they are capable of performing if guided by an adult • Children begin to self guide and self direct using private speech • PrivateSpeech- self guiding and directing comments children make to themselves as they learn in the zone of proximal development and have conversations with those guiding them; first spoken aloud, then internally. • Scaffolding- degree of assistance provided to the learner in the zone of proximal development, gradually decreasing as the learners skills develop • Should gradually decrease as children become more competent at a task • Learning always takes place via social processes • Guided Participation • Developed by Barbara Roof • Guidedparticipation- teaching interaction between two people(often adult and child) as they participate in a culturally valued activity Language Development • InfiniteGeneratively- ability to take the word symbols of a language and combine them in an infinite number of ways • Broca’sArea-portion of the frontal lobe specialized for language production Wernicke’sArea- portion of left temporal lobe of the human brain that is specialized for language • comprehension • 12-18 Months: Slow Expansion First fifty words tend to be part of toddlers daily routines(important people, familiar • animals, body parts, etc) • Holophrase- single word used to represent whole sentence • Overextension-use of a single word to represent a variety of objects • Underextension- applying a general word to a specific object • First applying a new word to specific object and later learning to apply it to a category of objects • *production(speaking) lags behind comprehension(understanding) in language development • 18-24 Months: Naming Explosion Chapter 5 Toddlerhood Word production suddenly takes off • • FastMapping- learning and remembering a word for an object after just one time of being told what the object is called • TelegraphicSpeech-two word phrases that strip away connection words such as the and and • Shows initial knowledge of syntax • 24-36 Months: Becoming Adept at Language • Begin speaking clearly enough to make themselves understood • Have learned the rules of language • Language Acquisition Device- according to Chomsky, innate feature of the brain that enables children to perceive and grasp quickly the grammatical rules of language • Over regularization- applying grammatical rules even to words that are the exception to the rule Learning Language in a Social and Cultural Context • Children learn whichever language they are exposed to, no language is innate • The more children are spoken too in toddlerhood the more words they will learn • Impossible to tell how much environment or genetics influence this Section 3- Emotional an
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