Chapter 4 - FRHD .pdf

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Shuang Li

Chapter 4 Notes The First Two Years – Psychosocial Development Emotional Development -­‐ within the first two years, infants progress from reactive pain and pleasure, to complex patterns of social awareness – period of life is characterized by “high emotional responsiveness” -­‐ uncensored reactions (crying, laughing, raging) in infancy to more complex responses (self-satisfied grins, mournful pouts) in toddlerhood. Infants’Emotions -­‐ Happiness is expressed by the social smile, a smile evoked by a human face at about 6 weeks. -­‐ laughter appears ~ 3-4 months. -­‐ Infants worldwide express social joy between 2-4 months. Anger and Sadness -­‐ Infants express anger, usually triggered by frustration, by the time they are 6 months old. -­‐ anger in infancy is a health response to frustration - unlike sadness. -­‐ Sadness indicates withdrawal, and is accompanied by an increase in the body’s production of cortisol (stress hormone) -­‐ sorrow is stressful in infants Fear -­‐ fully formed fear in response to some person, thing or situation emerges at ~ 9 months. -­‐ Two kinds of social fears are obvious: -­‐ Stranger wariness: infant no longer smiles at any friendly face, but instead cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close, too quickly. -­‐ Separation anxiety: expressed in tears, dismay or anger when a familiar care-giver leaves. Normal at age 1, intensifies by age 2, and usually subsides after that. -- if remains after age 3, may be considered to be an emotional disorder. Toddlers’Emotions -­‐ emotions that emerge in the first months of life take on new strength at about age 1 -­‐ throughout the second year and beyond, anger and fear, typically become less frequent but more focused -- targeted toward infuriating or terrifying experiences. -­‐ new emotions appear toward the end of the second year: pride, shame, embarrassment & guilt -­‐ emerge from family interactions, and influenced by culture -­‐ ex. NorthAmerican families generally encourage pride in toddlers “You did it all by yourself!!”, butAsian families discourage pride, instead cultivating modesty & shame. -­‐ In every culture, families reinforce the emotions that will best prepare the toddler for life in that society. -­‐ by age 2, children can display the entire spectrum of emotional reactions. SelfAwareness -­‐ SelfAwareness: the realization that one’s body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people -­‐ Age 1: an emerging sense of “me” and “mine” leads to a new consciousness of others. -­‐ very young infants have no sense of self -­‐ Mahler theorized that for the first 4 months of life, infants see themselves as part of their mothers. -­‐ The period from 15 to 18 months “is noteworthy for the emergence of the Me-self, the sense of self as the object of one’s knowledge” Mirror Recognition -­‐ self-recognition in the mirror or in photographs usually emerges at about 18 months. -­‐ same age two other advances occur: pretending and using first-person pronouns -­‐ I, Me, Mine, Myself, My Brain Maturation and the Emotions -­‐ Infants’understanding of themselves is related to maturation of a particular part of the brain -­‐ scans of infant brains are notoriously difficult, expensive and open to various interpretations, so it’s difficult to to prove any specific neurological explanation of emotional development. -­‐ Developmentalists agree that infants’emotional development, specifically social awareness and reactions to stress, is directly tied to brain development. Synesthesia: -­‐ relationship between brain maturation and the ability to express each emotion or sensation in an appropriate way -- not confusing fear & anger, for instance, or a loud sound with the colour red. -­‐ such differentiation originates in the brain. -­‐ for infants, synesthesia seems common, because the boundaries between the sensory parts of the cortex are less distinct -- textures seem associated with vision and sounds with smells; and the infants own body seems associated with the bodies of others. -­‐ such sensory connections are called CROSS-MODAL PERCEPTION. Social Impulses -­‐ most developmentalists agree that the social smile and the first laughter appear as the cortex of the brain matures. -­‐ the maturation of a particular part of the cortex is directly connected to emotional self- regulation, which allows the child to moderate these emotions. -­‐ one important aspect of the infant’s emotional development is that particular people begin to arouse specific emotions. -- infant emotional reactions depend partly on memory, which is fragile in the first months and gradually improves as dendrites and axons connect Stress -­‐ excessive stress impairs the brain, particularly in areas associated with emotional development -­‐ Brain imagery and cortisol measurements have proven that the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that regulates various bodily functions and hormone production, is affected by chronic early stress. -­‐ abuse - one form of chronic stress - has long-term consequences for a child’s emotional impairment -­‐ brains of older children who have been maltreated respond abnormally to stress - such abnormal neurological responses begin in infancy. -­‐ to keep infants from experiencing high levels of stress is to provide new mothers with abundant help and emotional support Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development Psychoanalytic Theory -­‐ connects biosocial and psychosocial development, emphasizing the need for responsive material care. -­‐ Freud & Erikson both described two distinct early stages of development. Freud: The Oral andAnal Stages -­‐ According to Freud, the first year of life is the oral stage (mouth is primary source of gratification) -­‐ In the second year, with the anal stage, the infant’s main pleasure comes from the anus - particularly from the sensual pleasure of bowel movements, and eventually, the psychological pleasure of controlling them -­‐ oral fixation: person is stuck at the oral stage, therefore eats, drinks, chews, bites or talks excessively in quest of the mouth-related pleasure that was denied in infancy. -­‐ anal personality - as an adult, seeking self-control with an unusually strong need for regularity and cleanliness in all aspects of life. Erikson: Trust andAutonomy -­‐ According to Erikson, the first crisis of life is trust vs. mistrust, when infants learn whether the world can be trusted to satisfy their basic needs. -­‐ the next crisis is called autonomy vs. shame and doubt. toddlers want autonomy (self-rule) over their own actions and bodies. If they fail to fain it, they feel ashamed of their actions and doubtful about their abilities. -­‐ Erikson took culture into account. He was aware that some cultures encourage independence and autonomy, but he may not have realized that in others “shame is a normative emotion that develops as parents use explicit shaming techniques” to encourage children’s loyalty and harmony within their families -­‐ autonomy is prized in the United States. Behaviorism -­‐ from the perspective of behaviorism, parents mold an infant’s emotions and personality as they reinforce or punish the child’s spontaneous behaviours -­‐ later behaviorists noted infant social learning, which is learning via observing others. -­‐ Albert Bandura experiment: children watched an adult hitting a rubber BoBo clown with a mallet and then treated the doll the same way. -­‐ behaviorist theory emphasizes the role of parents, especially mothers, as does psychoanalytic theory. -­‐ Freud thought that the mother is the young child’s first and most enduring “love object” and behaviorists stress the power that a mother has over her children. -­‐ this focus on the mother is too narrow Cognitive Theory -­‐ cognitive theory holds that thoughts and values determine a person’s perspective -­‐ thinking is affected both by the person’s age and the cultural values and thoughts affect emotions. The Infant’s Working Model -­‐ early experiences are important because beliefs, perceptions and memories make them so, not because they are buried in the unconscious (psychoanalytic theory) or burned into the brain (behaviorism) -­‐ Infants use their early relationships to develop a working model: a set of assumptions that become a frame reference to be called on later in life. -­‐ people develop cognitive schema to organize their perceptions of other people -­‐ this frame of reference is called a model because early relationships form a prototype, or blueprint, for later relationships. it is called working because, while usable, it is not necessarily fixed or final. -­‐ according to cognitive theory, it is a child’s interpretation of early experiences that is crucial - not necessarily the experiences themselves. Ethnotheories -­‐ cognitive theory takes into consideration the social constructions, or cultural beliefs, of the entire community -­‐ ethnotheory: a set of ideas in which the values & practices of a particular culture or ethnic group are embedded Systems Theory -­‐ Systems theory incorporates many factors: both genetic and learned, all of which change over time and influence one another. -­‐ Every inherited trait affects the social context and vice versa, all in systematic, interactive way. Temperament -­‐ temperament begins as “constitutionally based individual differences” in emotions, activity, and self-regulation. -­‐ Constitutionally based means that these traits originate with nature (genes), although they are influenced by nurture -­‐ generally, personality traits are considered to originate from learning, whereas temperament traits (shyness, aggression) are considered to originate from the genes. -­‐ systems theories stress that the boundaries between temperament and personality are porous, since genes, child rearing and culture all influence one another. The New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) -­‐ first among many large studies to recognize that each newborn has distinct inborn traits that then evoke responses from the parents -­‐ according the NYLS, by 3 months, infants manifest nine temperamental traits that can be clustered into 4 categories: easy, difficult, slow to warm up, and hard to classify. -­‐ easy - 40% -­‐ difficult - 10% -­‐ Slow to Warm up - 15% -­‐ Hard to Classify - 35% -­‐ NYLS found that temperament often changes in the early weeks but become
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