FRHD*1010 Chapter 4.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD*1010 nd th September 30 – October 6 2013 Chapter 4: The first 2 years Emotional Development st  In the 1 2 years infants progress from reactive pain & pleasure to complex patterns of social awareness  Time period of emotional responsiveness Early Emotions st  At 1 there is pleasure and pain 1. Newborns are happy & relaxed when fed and drifting into sleep 1. Cry when hurt or hungry, tired or frightened 2. Some have bouts of uncontrollable crying =colic probably from immature digestion Smiling & Laughing 3. Soon more emotions become recognizable 4. Curiosity is evident in infants 5. Happiness expressed by social smile that's evoked by a human face at about 6 weeks 6. Infants globally express social joy & even laughter by 2-4 months 7. Laughter builds a curiosity does Anger & Sadness 1. Anger is evident at 6 months usually triggered by frustration 2. Hard crying occurs often as infants hate to be strapped in, caged in, closed in or held in place when they want to explore 3. Sadness indicates withdrawal & is accompanied by an increase in body’s production of cortisol Cortisol: The primary stress hormones; Fluctuations effect human emotion 1. Since sadness produces stress, sorrow negatively impacts an infant 2. Too much sadness in early life leads to higher depression later on Fear 1. Evident at about 9 months & soon becomes more frequent &obvious 2 Types of Social Fear: 1. Separation Anxiety: Clinging & crying when a familiar caregiver is about to leave 2. Normal at age 1 & intensified by age 2 3. Interferes w/ sleep 4. Transitional items (e.g. teddy bear) are to help cope w/ anxiety 5. If remains strong after age 3 will be considered an emotional disorder 6. Stranger Wariness: Fear of unfamiliar people, especially when they move too close, too quickly 7. Strangers merit stares not smiles at age 1 which is a good sign 8. Many 1 year olds fear anything unexpected from flush of toilet to jack-in-the-box Toddlers’ Emotions 9. Emotions gain strength in toddlerhood 10. These new strengths are apparent in temper tantrums 11. Anger & fear become less frequent but more focused Social Awareness 1. Temper can be seen as expression of selfhood & so can new emotions of pride, shame, embarrassment, disgust & guilt 2. These emotions require social & self awareness which emerges from family interactions, shaped by culture 3. By age 2 most children display the entire spectrum of emotions & begin to regulate their reactions Self-Awareness 1 Self-Awareness: A person’s realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind & actions are different from other peoples’ 1. Very young infants have no sense of self 2. Between 15months – 2 years babies become self-aware Brains & Emotions 1. Brain maturation is involved in the emotional developments above b/c all emotional reactions begin in the brain 2. Experience & culture promote specific connections between neurons and emotions 3. Discrete emotions during early infancy are murky & unpredictable 4. Infant emotions may erupt, increase or disappear for unknown reasons 5. Growth of synapses & dendrites is a likely explanation, the result of past experiences & ongoing maturation Growth of the Brain  Many different aspects of brain development support social emotions  E.g. social smile & laughter appear as cortex matures  The maturation of a specific part of the cortex is directly connected to emotional self-regulation allowing child to express or hide feelings  Culture has effect Memory  All emotional reactions, especially those connected to self-awareness depend partly on memory  Memory for people is more strong than memory for eves and places  Even in early weeks faces are connected to sensations  Social preferences form in the early months and are connected w/ individual’s face, voice, touch & smell Stress  Emotions are connected to brain activity & hormones but connections are complicated – affected by genes, past experiences & additional hormones & neurotransmitters that aren’t understood  Excessive stress harms the brain Temperament Genes & Emotions  Infant emotions are affected by alleles & prenatal events  The uniqueness of each person means that some babies are difficult from moment born Temperament: Inborn differences between 1 person & another in emotions, activity & self-regulation. Its measured by a person’s typical response to the environment  Biological = nature not nurture  Temperament isn’t the same as personality thought temperament inclinations may lead to personality differences  Personality traits like honesty or humility are learned but temperament such as shyness and aggression are genetic The Development of Social Bonds Synchrony Synchrony: A coordinated, rapid & smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant  Evident in the 1 3 months becoming more frequent as infant matures Both Parents Active  Detailed research reveals the symbiosis of the adult-infant partnership  Adults rarely smile at young infants until infant smiles first several weeks after birth  Synchrony is evident not only in direct observation as when watching a caregiver play w/ an infant too young to talk but also via computer calculation of the millisecond timing of smiles, arched eyebrows etc. 2  Synchrony usually begins w/ adults imitating infants w/ spit-second timing and also w/ tone & rhythm Attachment st  Once infants can move around (toward end of 1 year) they are not longer content to respond, moment by moment to adult facial expressions & vocalizations  Attachment takes over synchrony Attachment: An affectional tie that infants form w/ caregiver that binds them together in space & endures over time  Actually beings pre birth and lasts throughout relationship life Signs of Attachment 
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