FRHD*1010 Chapter 6.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD*1010 th th October 7 – October 13 2013 Chapter 6: Early Childhood Psychological Development Emotional Development  Children gradually learn when and how to express emotions Emotional Regulation: The ability to control when & how emotions are expressed  Task occurs between 2 & 6 years  By age 6 kids can usually be angry but not explosive, frightened but not terrified Initiative Vs. Guilt rd  Erikson’s 3 development stage where children acquire many skills and competencies  Initiative – saying something new, expanding ability, beginning a project  Depending on outcome, kids will feel proud or guilty Protective optimism  Kids beliefs abut their worth are connected to parental confirmation  Erikson described autonomy at ages 1 & 2 often expressed by stubbornness = “the terrible twos”  By age 3 autonomy is better regulated Self-Concept: A person’s understanding of who he/she is, incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality and various personal traits such as gender & size  Children in North America and Europe develop strong self-concept  In US self-concept includes gender & size  Erikson recognized kids are not realistic – they believe they are smart, strong & good-looking and that any goal is attainable Brain Maturation  The new initiative benefits from myelination of the limbic system, growth of prefrontal cortex and longer attention span – all made possible by neurological maturation  Throughout early childhood violent outbursts, uncontrollable crying, and terrifying phobias diminish  The capacity to self-control becomes more evident  Such as not opening present right away etc. Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: A drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent  Encouraging this is crucial for young children Extrinsic Motivation: A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one’s achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person’s esteem Imaginary Friends  Common with age over the years of early childhood (ages 3-7)  Some imaginary friends help w/ emotional regulation: children use them to control their fears & temper as well as provide comfort and companionship Culture and Emotional Control  There’s considerable variation within and among cultures  Control strategies may vary  Peers, parents & strangers sometimes ignore emotional outbursts, sometimes deflect them, sometimes punish them Seeking Emotional Balance  Caregivers in every culture try to prevent psychopathology an illness or disorder (pathology) of the mind (psycho)  Symptoms and diagnosis are influenced by culture 1 Externalizing Problems: Difficulty w/ emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrollable physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things Internalizing Problems: Difficulty w/ emotional regulation that involves turning one’s emotional distress inward, as by feelings excessively guilty, ashamed or worthless Play  Play is timeless & universal  Whether play is essential for normal growth or is merely a fun activity that has development benefits is controversial Playmates  Young children play best w/ peers about the same age and social status  2 year olds aren’t yet good playmates  Most 6 year olds are quite skilled  Parents must find playmates for their children Cultural differences in Play  Everywhere a child playing is a sign of healthy development  Children create dramas that reflect their culture and play games passed down from older generations  Chinese kids fly kites, Lapp children pretend to be reindeer etc.  Play is universal but specifics differ and so do playmates  Sociologist Mildred Parten distinguished 5 kinds of play 1. Solitary Play – Child plays alone 2. Onlooker Play - Watches others play 3. Parallel Play – Children play w/ similar objects in similar ways but not together 4. Associate Play – Children interact, sharing material but play isn’t reciprocal 5. Cooperative Play – Children play together Active Play  Children need physical activity to develop muscle strength & control  Peers provide and audience, role models, & sometimes competition  Active social play correlates w/ acceptance and a healthy self-concept & may help regulate emotions  Active play advances planning & self0control Rough-And-Tumble Play  Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing or hitting but in which there is no intent to harm  Many scientists think it helps prefrontal cortex development, as children learn to regulate emotions, practice social skills and strengthen their bodies Drama & Pretending Sociodramatic play: Pretend play in which children act out various roles & themes in stories that they create  Builds on pretending which emerges in toddlerhood  Preschoolers do more than pretend… they combine their imagination w/ their friend’s imaginations, advancing theory of mind Challenges for Caregivers  Young children’s emotions & actions are affected by many factors including brain maturation, culture & peers  All chil
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