Chapter 3

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD1010 Chapter 3: The First Two Years: Body and Mind Summary Name: Emily Campbell E-mail: [email protected] Key Terms: Norm – an average, or standard measurement, calculated from the measurement of many individuals within a specific group or population. Head-sparing – a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth. Cortex – the outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling, and sensing occurs here. Prefrontal cortex – the area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control. Transient exuberance – the great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that develop in an infant’s brain during the first 2 years. Pruning – when applied to brain development, the process by which unused connections in the brain atrophy and die. The “use it or lose it” system. Self-righting – the inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit; literally, to return to sitting or standing upright after being tipped over. Co-sleeping – custom in which parents and their children sleep together in the same room or bed. Sensation – response of the sensory system when it detects a stimulus. Perception – the mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation. Binocular vision – the ability to focus two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image. Motor skills – the learned abilities to move some of the body, in actions ranging from a jump to closing your eye. Immunizations – process that stimulates the immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease. Can occur naturally or through vaccination. Stunting – failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition. Wasting – tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of malnutrition. Object permanence – realization that objects still exist een if they can no longer be seen, touched, or heard. Holophrase – a single word that is used to express a complete meaningful thought. Hybrid theory – perspective that combines various aspects of different theories to explain how language, or any other development phenomenon occurs. Key Points: Growth in Infancy  Weight and height increase markedly in the first two years; the norms are three times a baby’s birth weight by age 1 and 12 inches taller by age 2. o Early checkups are vital to ensure proper growth.  Brain development is rapid during infancy, particularly development of the axons, dendrites, and synapses within the cortex. o Dendrites grow rapidly in transient exuberance, followed by pruning. o Loss of dendrites increases brainpower (because connections compact and strengthen without the unused connections present). o Brain growth accelerates after birth because the head must be small enough to fit through the mother’s pelvis in labour. o Failure of normal pruning leads to intellectual disabilities.  Where and how much infants sleep is shaped by brain maturation and family practices. o Co-sleeping is becoming an increasingly popular sleeping arrangement. Perceiving and Moving  All senses function at birth, with hearing the most acute and vision the least developed.  Every sense allows perception to develop and further social understanding. Sensation precedes perception.  Gross motor skills follow a genetic timetable for maturation; they are also affected by practice and experience. These skills involve large body movements. o Proceed in a cephalocaudal (head-down)
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