FRHD1010 Chapter 3: The First Two Years: Body and Mind Summary
Name: Emily Campbell
E-mail: [email protected]
Norm – an average, or standard measurement, calculated from the measurement of many
individuals within a specific group or population.
Head-sparing – a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts
Cortex – the outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking,
feeling, and sensing occurs here.
Prefrontal cortex – the area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in
anticipation, planning, and impulse control.
Transient exuberance – the great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that
develop in an infant’s brain during the first 2 years.
Pruning – when applied to brain development, the process by which unused connections
in the brain atrophy and die. The “use it or lose it” system.
Self-righting – the inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit; literally, to return to
sitting or standing upright after being tipped over.
Co-sleeping – custom in which parents and their children sleep together in the same room
Sensation – response of the sensory system when it detects a stimulus.
Perception – the mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a
Binocular vision – the ability to focus two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see
Motor skills – the learned abilities to move some of the body, in actions ranging from a
jump to closing your eye.
Immunizations – process that stimulates the immune system to defend against attack by a
particular contagious disease. Can occur naturally or through vaccination.
Stunting – failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and
Wasting – tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of
Object permanence – realization that objects still exist een if they can no longer be seen,
touched, or heard.
Holophrase – a single word that is used to express a complete meaningful thought.
Hybrid theory – perspective that combines various aspects of different theories to explain
how language, or any other development phenomenon occurs. Key Points:
Growth in Infancy
Weight and height increase markedly in the first two years; the norms are three
times a baby’s birth weight by age 1 and 12 inches taller by age 2.
o Early checkups are vital to ensure proper growth.
Brain development is rapid during infancy, particularly development of the axons,
dendrites, and synapses within the cortex.
o Dendrites grow rapidly in transient exuberance, followed by pruning.
o Loss of dendrites increases brainpower (because connections compact and
strengthen without the unused connections present).
o Brain growth accelerates after birth because the head must be small enough
to fit through the mother’s pelvis in labour.
o Failure of normal pruning leads to intellectual disabilities.
Where and how much infants sleep is shaped by brain maturation and family
o Co-sleeping is becoming an increasingly popular sleeping arrangement.
Perceiving and Moving
All senses function at birth, with hearing the most acute and vision the least
Every sense allows perception to develop and further social understanding.
Sensation precedes perception.
Gross motor skills follow a genetic timetable for maturation; they are also affected
by practice and experience. These skills involve large body movements.
o Proceed in a cephalocaudal (head-down)