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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Professor C.

CHAPTER 6: PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT  Emotional Regulation – controlling the expression of emotions is a preeminent psychosocial task between the ages of 2 and 6 o when the emotional hot spots of the limbic system connect to the prefrontal cortex, children become more aware of their reactions and better able to control them  Initiative versus Guilt – Erikson‟s third developmental stage in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them o if parents ignore, rather than guide emotions, children may not learn emotional regulation  Self-concept – a person‟s understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits o young children are not realistic, they believe they are smart, strong, and good- looking – and that any goal is achievable o the positivity bias allows them to try unfamiliar activities, make friends, begin school, and so on  Intrinsic Motivation occurs when people do something for the joy of doing it o Imaginary Friends are used to combat loneliness and aid in emotional regulation common throughout ages 3-7  Extrinsic Motivation comes from outside the person, when people do something to gain praise or other reinforcement o In a study performed on motivation on young children, it was found that extrinsic motivation undercut intrinsic motivation  Culture can have an influence on children‟s emotional control because they are encouraged to handle emotions differently (may be encouraged to laugh, cry, or hide their emotions based on the cultural context)  In all cultures, parents and caregivers try to prevent psychopathology, an illness or disorder of the mind o Impaired emotional regulation is a universal signal of mental imbalance o Parents strive for an „optimal balance‟ between emotional expression and control o Some people may have externalizing problems where their feelings burst out uncontrollably (through uncontrollable physical or verbal outbursts) o Internalizing problems in which a person may be fearful and withdrawn, and turn their distress inward by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed or worthless o A View from Science Box p.210 – on average girls are advanced in controlling their emotions, particularly anger, compared to boys  Mistreated boys are more likely to externalize and mistreated girls are more likely to internalize  Research suggests that extreme externalization or internalization predicts future psychopathology PLAY  Children play best with peers of the same age and social status  Playing with playmates is an important area in developing positive social skills  As children grow older, their play becomes more social and is influenced by physical settings  Development of social play between ages 1 and 6 are distinguished in 5 types of play: 1. Solitary Play – a child plays alone, unaware of other children playing around them 2. Onlooker Play – a child watches other children play 3. Parallel Play – children play with similar objects in similar ways, but not together 4. Associative Play- children interact, sharing material, but their play is not reciprocal 5. Cooperative Play – children play together, creating dramas or taking turns  Active social play (through physical activity with peers) correlates with peer acceptance and a healthy self-concept and may help regulate emotions o Rough and Tumble play is the most common form of active play  Most common among young males with ample play space and limited supervision  Children have a play face (smiling, not angry) to signify they are just pretending  Scientists believe this type of play helps the prefrontal cortex develop, as children learn to regulate their emotions, practice social skills, and strengthen their bodies o Sociodramatic play is a type of active play in which children act out various roles and plots  Boys favourite theme of sociodramatic play is good vs. evil  Girls favourite theme is often to act out domestic scenes CHALLENGES FOR CAREGIVERS  Parental involvement plays an important role in development of social and cognitive competence  Baumrind, Diana (1967-71) studied 100 preschool children and found that parents differed on four important dimensions 1. Expressions of warmth – some parents are warm and affectionate; other are cold and critical 2. Strategies for discipline – parents vary in how they explain, criticize, persuade and punish 3. Communication – some parents listen patiently; others demand silence 4. Expectations for maturity – parents vary in how much responsibility and self- control they expect  Baumrind`s Three Styles of Caregiving: o Authoritarian parenting:  Word is law, not to be questioned  Misconduct brings punishment, usually physical  Sets down clear rules and has high standards  Discussion about emotions is rare, children are expected not to have an opinion  Parents seem cold and rarely show affection  Children become conscientious, obedient and quiet but not especially happy  Children tend to feel guilty, internalizing their frustrations and blame themselves when things don`t go well  Children tend to rebel and often move out before the age of 20 o Permissive parenting:  Make few demands, hiding their impatience  Discipline is lax because they have low expectations for maturity  Nurturing and accepting, listening to whatever their children say  Children are unhappy and lack self-control  Inadequate emotional regulation makes them immature and impedes friendships  Children tend to still live at home into their early adulthood o Authoritative parenting:  Parents set limits but are flexible  Encourage maturity, but listen and forgive (not punish) if the child falls short  Parents consider themselves guides, not authorities and not friends  Children are successful, articulate, happy and generous with others  Children are often liked by teachers and peers o Neglectful/Uninvolved parents: (as identified by other researchers)  Parents are oblivious to children‟s behaviour; seeming not to care  Parents do not use physical punishment  Children are immature, sad, lonely, and at risk of injury and abuse  Criticisms of Baumrind‟s parenting styles: o Her participants were not diverse in SES, ethnicity, or culture o She focused more on adult attitudes than on adult actions o She overlooked children‟s temperamental differences o She did not recognize that some “authoritarian” parents are also affectionate o She did not realize that some “permissive” parents provide extensive verbal guidance  Parenting style depends heavily on the characteristics of the child  The Media can pose harmful to a child‟s development o Violent media teaches aggression o Non-violent media takes time away from constructive interaction/creative play o Social interaction among family members is reduced when a TV is on, whether or not anyone is watching  Boys vs. Girls – children are exposed to gender labelling as young as 2 years old o Sex differences – biological differences between boys and girls o Gender differences – culturally prescribed roles and behaviours for boys/girls o Young children are confused about sexual differences o Preschoolers are rigid in their gender differences (boys reject pink toys, girls prefer pink toys – boys play with boys and girls play with girls, etc)  Psychoanalytic Theory – Freud o Phallic Stage – the third stage of development occurring from 3-6 years old, in which boys become aware of their genitals and becomes there focus of concern and pleasure o During this stage, boys develop sexual feelings toward the mother and have jealous feelings toward the father  Oedipus Complex – boys jealously of their father, so jealous they want to replace their dad  To fight this incestuous and murderous impulse, every male develops a powerful c
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