FRHD*1010 Chapter 9

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD*1010 th h October 20 – October 27 2013 Chapter 9: Adolescence – Body & Mind Puberty st Puberty: The time between the 1 onrush of hormones & full adult physical development. Puberty usually lasts 3- 5 years. Many more years are required to achieve psychosocial maturity  Normally starts between 8-14 & follows a sequence  For girls, observable changes include nipple growth, then few pubic hairs, widening of hips, 1 period, full pubic hair & than breast growth  Average age of menarche (girls 11st period) among normal weight girls is aboutst2 years, 8months  For boys, usual sequence is growth of testes, initial pubic-hair, growth of penis, 1 ejaculation (spermarche), appearance of facial hair, peak growth spurt, deepening of voice & final pubic hair growth  Average age of spermarche is just under 13 years Unseen Beginnings  Entire puberty process begins w/ invisible event, hormonal increase Hormones: An organic chemical substance that's produced by 1 body tissue & conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function Pituitary: A gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth & that control other glands among them the adrenal & sex glands Adrenal Glands: 2 glands, located above the kidneys, that produce hormones (including stress hormones & norepinephrine) HPA(Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis: A sequence of hormone production that originates in the hypothalamus, moves to pituitary and then adrenal HPG(Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad) axis: A sequence of hormone production that originates in hypothalamus, moves to pituitary and then to gonads  As a result, the gonads enlarge & increase their production of sex hormone (estradiol & testosterone)  A dramatic increase in estrogens & androgens at puberty produces mature ova or sperm released in menarche or spermarche  Increases interest in sex and makes reproduction biologically possible Body Rhythms  The brain of every living thing responds to the environment w/ natural rhythms that rise & fall by the hours, days & seasons Circadian rhythm,: A day-night cycle of biological activity occurs approx.… every 24 hours Age & Puberty Genes & Gender  Approx. 2/3 of the variation in age of puberty is genetic, evident in both families & ethnic group  Genes of the sex chromosomes have a marked effect  E.g for height, the avg. girl is about 2 years ahead of the avg. boy Body Fat  Heavy girls reach menarche years earlier than malnourished ones  Most girls must weigh at least 100 pounds before menarche  Puberty has occurred at younger ages every century which is 1 result of the secular trend … more food has allowed biological advances Leptin: A hormone that affects appetite & is believed to affect the onset of puberty. Leptin levels increase during childhood & peak around age 12  Affects females more than males Stress  Stress affects the sexual-reproductive system by making it more difficult in adulthood by hastening (not delaying) the hormonal onset of puberty 1  AKA puberty arrives earlier if children’s parents are sick, addicted, or divorced Too Early, Too Late Girls  Early maturing in girls tend to have lower self-stem, more depression and poorer body image than other girls  Some girls will have older boyfriends which may boost status but increases the risk of drug & alcohol use, eating disorders & relational bullying as well as becoming victim of physical violence Boys  Early-maturing boys have lately been more aggressive, law-breaking & alcohol abusing than later-maturing  This results in trouble w/ parents, schools and police  For both sexes, early puberty correlates w/ sexual activity & teenage parenthood which can lead to depression and other psychosocial problems  Boys who reach puberty late may also have problems such as anxiety depression and fear of sex Growing Bigger & Stronger Growth Spurt: The relatively sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty. Each body part increases in size on a schedule. Weight usually precedes height and growth of the limbs precedes growth of torso. Sequence: Weight, Height, and Muscle  As bones lengthen & harden, children eat more & gain more weight  Height spurt follows weight spurt  2 years later (approx..) a muscle spurt occurs\  Lungs triple in weight  Adolescents breath more deeply & slowly  Hear doubles in size  Heartbeat slows, decreasing the pulse rate while increasing blood pressure  Endurance improves  Only 1 organ system, the lymphoid system, decreases in size; teenagers are more susceptible to repertory ailments Skin & Hair  Another organ system, skin, becomes oiler, sweatier and more prone to acne  Hair changes – during puberty the hair on head & limbs becomes coarser & darker  New hair grows under arms, on face & sex organs Sexual Maturation Primary Sex Characteristics: The parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles & penis  During puberty, these all increase in size dramatically Secondary Sex Characteristics: Physical traits that aren’t directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity such as beard or breasts  Shape Nutrition  All the changes of puberty depend on adequate nourishment Diet Deficiencies  Deficiencies of iron, calcium, zinc & other minerals are especially common after puberty  Menstruation depletes iron so anemia is more likely among adolescent girls than any other age/gender  Boys may be iron deficient if they push their bodies in physical labor or sports Muscles need iron for growth & strength  Cutoff for anemia higher for boys than girls b/c males require more to be healthy  The daily recommended intake of calcium for teens is 1300 mg, but the avg. American teen consumes less than 500 mg a day 2  About half of adult bone mass is acquired from ages 10-20 which means many contemporary teens will develop osteoporosis b/c of too little calcium & too much soda Body Image Body Image: A person’s idea of how his or her body looks  Few teens welcome every physical change in their bodies  They exaggerate imperfections and sacrifice future health for current body image (e.g. diet soda)  As hormones of puberty awaken sexual interest, both sexes become less happy w/ their own bodies & more superficial in what they admire in the other sex Eating Disorders  One result of dissatisfaction w/ body image is that many teens (mostly girls) eat erratically or ingest drugs to lose weight  Boys may take steroid to increase muscle mass Anorexia Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder characterized by self0starvation. Affected individuals voluntarily under eat &often over-exercise, depriving their vital organs of nutrition  Anorexia can be fatal  Leads to death by organ failure in 5-20% of sufferers 4 Symptoms usually present: 1. Refusal to maintain weight that's at least 85% of normal BMI 2. Intense fear of weight gain 3. Disturbed body perception & denial of problem 4. Absence of menstruation Bulimia About 3x as common as anorexia Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder where binge eating and subsequent purging takes place  Most are close to normal weight and therefore unlikely to starve  Risk serious health problems including damage to gastrointestinal issues, ca
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