FRHD*1010 Chapter 10

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD*1010 th h October 20 – October 27 2013 Chapter 10: Adolescence – Psychosocial Development Identity  Psychosocial development during adolescence is often considered the search for under-standing  Self-expression and self-concept become more & more important Identity vs. role confusion: Erikson’s term for the 5 stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out “who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt Identity Achievement: Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord w/ past experiences and future plans. Not Yet Achieved  Erikson’s insights have inspired thousands of researchers  Over the past 50 years, major psychosocial shifts have lengthened the duration of adolescence & made identity achievement tougher  Several aspects of the search for identity, especially sexual & vocational identity, have become more arduous than when Erikson wrote about them  Development beliefs identity crises hasn't ended by 18 Role Confusion: A situation where an adolescent doesn't seem to know or care what his identity is  Lack of any commitment to goals or values  Thinking is disorganized Foreclosure: Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts his/her parent’s or society’s roles & values wholesale, without questioning or analysis Moratorium: An adolescent’s choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity-achievement decisions  E.g. going to college  Average age is 19 4 Arenas of Identity Formation Erikson highlighted 4 aspects of identity Religious Identity  Few adolescents completely reject religion if they’ve grown up a certain faith  Past parental practices influence religious identity  Adolescents question specific beliefs as their cognitive processes allow more reflection, but few have a crisis of faith unless unusual circumstances occur Political Identity  Parents influential  People who are pretty young (under 30) are usually on the front lines of revolutions or are disciples within groups that their elders call cults  Adolescents rarely drawn to these groups unless personal loneliness or fam background compels them  Identity politics is the tendency to identify w/ and vote for people of one’s own race, religion or sex  Ethnic & generational identity overlap political identity but they don't determine it Vocational Identity  Vocational identity originally meant envisioning oneself as a worker of a certain occupation  Made sense 100 years ago but not now as no one is expected to be prepared for lifetime career by age 16  A specific vocational identity takes years to establish but wanting to become self-sufficient adult w/ a steady job motivates many young people Sexual Identity  Achieving sexual identity is a lifelong task b/c norms & attitudes shift over time Gender Identity: A person’s acceptance of the roles& behaviours that society associates w/ the biological categories of male & female 1  Refers primarily to person’s self0definition as male or female Relationships with Others  Time of personal rebellion & raging hormones  Social influences include parents, peers, teachers, grandparents, relatives, popular celebs etc. Parents  Parent relationship affects every aspect of adolescent development  Disputes are common as adolescents seek independence Bickering: Petty, peevish arguing usually repeated & ongoing  Some bickering may indicate healthy family  One reason for conflict is both generations misjudge eachother  By age 18 most teens appreciate their parents who have learned to allow more independence Closeness within the family 4 aspects: 1. Communication 2. Support 3. Connectedness (How emotionally close are they) 4. Control (limit or encourage) Parental Monitoring: Parent’s ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where & with whom Peer Power  Adolescents rely on peers to help them navigate the physical changes of puberty, intellectual challenges of high school & social adjustments of leaving childhood  Peers more useful for these challenges than parents  Friendships are important  Adults sometimes unaware of adolescent’s desire for respect from their peers  Seek peer acceptance Peer Pressure Peer Pressure: Encouragement to conform to one’s friends or contemporaries in behaviour, dress & attitude; usually considered negative  Peers are probably more helpful than harmful, especially in early adolescence when biological & social stresses can be overwhelming Crowds: A larger group of adolescents have something in common but who aren’t necessarily friends  Crowds encourage certain values Selecting Friends  B/c friends need to be sympathetic to the intricacies of one another’s relationships to each parent, peer & partner, friends typically share values and background  Ethnic identity is a major task for adolescents  Larger society promotes stereotypes and prejudice and parents may counter w/ racial socialization  Each young person still needs to find their own ethnic identity distinct from social stereotypes  To accomplish this, its useful to have friends from same ethnicity  Young people can get eachother in trouble Deviancy Training: Destructive peer support in which 1 person shows another how to rebel against authority & social norms  Adolescents sometimes don't choose their friends wisely  2 concepts, selection & facilitation, are key to understanding the impact of peers  Teens select a clique whose vales & interests they share  Peers facilitate destructive &constructive behaviours Sexual Interactions  Teen romance can increase anguish and early sex can be problematic 2  Sexual impulses are norma
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