FRHD*1010 Chapter 11

5 Pages

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

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FRHD*1010 th nd October 27 – November 2 2013 Chapter 11: Emerging Adulthood – Body, Mind & Social World Emerging Adulthood: The period of life between ages 18-25. It’s widely thought of as a separate development stage  Many people seek higher education & explore their identity by postponing marriage, parenthood & career Biosocial Development  Age 18-25 are prime for hard physical work & successful reproduction  Now a days during emerging adulthood, societies, families and young adults expect more education, later marriage and fewer kids then 50 years ago  These trends are everywhere  For most workers, desk & factory work has replaced hard labor  Birth rate has fallen Strong & Active Bodies  Health has not changed except maybe improved  Every human body system including the respiratory, digestive, circulatory & sexual-reproductive systems function optimally at the beginning of adulthood  Serious diseases are not yet apparent and some childhood ailments are outgrown  Serious health problems from childhood do last  Trends towards better diets and regular exercise that improves mental & physical health  During early adulthood the immune system is strong & fights off everything from sniffles to cancer & responds well to vaccines  Death from heart disease rare in emerging adulthood Fertility, Then & Now  Sexual-reproductive system is at its strongest during emerging adulthood  Sex drive is powerful  Fertility is optimal, miscarriage less common, serious birth complications are unusual Premarital Sex  Modern contraception makes it possible for people to have sex without pregnancy  Trend towards people accepting premarital sex compared to before  Few young adults think living together before marriage s bad for society, even though most older adults think it is Sexual Diseases  Premarital sex and single motherhood are controversial  Sexual freedom increase STIs w/ half of all new cases worldwide occurring in people younger than 26 Globalization accelerates every contagious disease including STIs  International travel means an STI caught by an infected worker in one place quickly spreads to young adults thousands of miles away  Within pat 20 years, HIV has become a worldwide epidemic w/ more female than male victims  Worldwide young adults are the prime STI vectors  Since 2010, AIDs epidemic has been slowing Taking Risks Benefits & Liabilities  Societies and individuals benefit from risk-taking in emerging adulthood  Enrolling in college, moving, marriage having kids… are all risky but beneficial  Starting a business, entering contest, joining army, rescuing stranger etc.  Risk taking is often destructive due to accidents 1  Low rate of disease between 18-25 is counterbalanced by a high rate of severe injury and violent death  Age is always a factor in suicide, homicide and accidents Risky Sports  Many young adults seek rush of risk-taking through recreation  Climb mountains, swim in oceans, bungee-jump etc.  Competitive extreme sports are thrilling to emerging adults Drug Abuse Drug Abuse: The ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user’s biological or psychosocial well-being  Even 1-time use can be abusive if it leads to danger such as driving or walking into traffic  More often, abusers are often addicts (need drug to feel OK)  Part of the attraction for emerging adults is taking the drug to feel dizzy, high or out-of-body  Adds to thrill if authority disapproves  Most street sellers of drugs are pretty young & they often quit, go to prison or are killed before middle age  Illegal drug use peak is at age 20 and then declines sharply afterwards Cognitive Development  Formal operational though is continued lifelong  Adult thinking is different from adolescent as its more practical, flexible and they are better able to coordinate objective & subjective perspectives Postformal Thought Postformal Thought: A proposed adult stage of cognitive development (following Piaget’s 4 stages).  Goes beyond adolescent thinking by being more practical, flexible and more dialectical  Characterized by “problem finding” Combining Emotions & Logic  Adolescents use 2 modes of thinking: (1) formal analysis to learn science, develop arguments and resolve problems and (2) emotional thinking  Rarely coordinate the 2 modes  Post formal thinkers are less impulsive than adolescents  Take more flexible & comprehensive approach  Post formal thought is more practical as well as more creative and imaginative than thinking in other stages Really a stage?  Almost every contemporary scientists finds fault with some aspect of Piaget’s theory of child cognition  Especially his notion that the final & best thinking is formal operational and achieved at adolescence has gotten a lot of criticism  Similar problems occur w. Postformal thought  The prefrontal cortex isn’t fully mature until the early 20s and new dendrites and even new neurons grow throughout adulthood  Enables adults to think in ways adolescents don't yet Countering Stereotypes  Cognitive flexibility, particularly the ability to change one’s childhood assumptions is needed to counter stereotypes  Daily life of young adults is to be flexible and adapt  Cognitive flexibility allows people to recognize their underlying emotional biases and then to change their behaviour to be in accord w/ their rational thought Stereotype Threat: Possibility that one’s appearance or behaviour will be misread to confirm another person’s oversimplified, prejudiced attitudes  May interfere w/ emerging adults by creating anxiety, fear, and disrupting logic  Can create vicious cycle The Effects of College 2  Lots of people postpone the usual markers of adult life (marriage, steady job etc.) Massification  Tertiary education improves health & education  On average a college degree adds approx. $20,000/year to a worker’s salary  College grads on average of healthier, live about 10 years longer than those without a high school diploma  Result of bette
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