FRHD*1010 Chapter 8 Notes

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD*1010 th th October 13 – October 19 2013 Chapter 8: Middle Childhood – Psychosocial Development The Nature of the Child  Middle childhood is a time kids gain independence and autonomy  They increase in ability to regulate self and exercise self-control  School-age children can care for themselves Industry & Inferiority  More than people of any other age, children age 6-11 are naturally industrious, practicing whatever skills their culture values or are busy w/ their own childhood concerns  Far more vulnerable to criticism than are younger kids Erikson’s Insights Industry versus inferiority: The 4 of Erikson’s 8 psychosocial crises, during which kids attempt to master many skills. Developing a sense of themselves as industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.  Overall kids judge themselves either industrious or inferior deciding whether they are competent or incompetent, productive or useless, winners or losers  Being productive is intrinsically joyous & it fosters self-control that's crucial defense against emotional problems Freud on Latency Latency: Freud’s term for middle childhood, during which kids emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet (latent). Freud though that sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, bursting fourth again at puberty. Self-Concept  As children mature they develop their self-concepts which are ideas about themselves including intelligence, personality, abilities, gender & ethnic background  The self-concept gradually becomes more specific & logical as one might expect  Also becomes less optimistic including influences from peers & society Compared w/ Others  The schoolchild’s self-concept no longer mirrors parents’ perspective  Children become more concerned with peer opinions as they age from 6-11 ERIKSON: Industry vs. Inferiority th  The 4 stage when children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either: industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent  During these years the child becomes ready to apply themselves to given tasks and skills  FREUD described this same stage as the latency period o Children’s emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet – the sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged Resilience and Stress  Resilience: ability to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress o Is dynamic – may be evident at one age, but not at another o Is a positive adaptation to stress – must overcome issues using positive mechanisms (e.g. dealing with emotional pain by studying harder or going to the gym vs. self-harming practices) o Adversity must be significant – only major coping signifies resilience  Accumulated stresses over time are more harmful than major stress events o Repeated stress makes resilience difficult  Coping mechanisms can help reduce the negative effects of repeated stress 1  Social support is an influential factor which can strengthen the ability to cope with stress o E.g. Religion  Poverty is less stressful if low income is temporary and the family’s net worth can buffer the strain Shared and Non-Shared Environments  Children are less affected by shared environment than non-shared environment  Most personality traits are a result of genes and non-shared environmental influences  Even though siblings are typically raised together in the same household, they do not share the same environment  Environmental factors impact each person individually as a result of their ages, gender, personality, etc. o Therefore, moving may create a different environmental impact on an 8-year old girl, than her 10- year old brother Family Structure and Family Function  Structure – the legal and genetic connections among people living in the same household  Function – how a family cares for its members o Can be affected by income  Children need 5 things from their families during Middle Childhood: o Physical necessities – e.g. provision of food, clothes, etc. o Learning – e.g. help with homework o Self-respect – e.g. giving each child a way to excel and shine at something o Peer Relationships – e.g. families help child foster friendships via play dates o Harmony and Stability – provide protective and predicabl
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