Human Development Notes

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Chapter 9: Adolescence: Body and Mind 0 Puberty: the time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. Puberty usually lasts three of five years. Many more years are required to achieve psychosocial maturity. 1 This ends childhood, unleash cascade hormones that produce external growth and internal changes such as emotions and sexual desires 2 Usually starts from ages 8 to 14 most ends about 4 years after and sometimes physical differences go until age 20 3 Menarche: A girls first menstrual period, signaling that she has begun ovulation. 4 Average is with normal girl is 12 years and 8 months 5 For boys, sequence growth is known as spermarche; a boys first ejaculation of sperm, can occur as early as infancy, signals sperm production. May occur during sleep “wet dreams” or direct stimulation. Typical age under 13 Unseen Beginnings 0 Visible changes of puberty, begins with hormonal increase not visible 1 Hormones: An organic chemical substance that is produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect physiological function – regulate sleep hunger moods stress many bodily reactions, hormone levels correlate with self reported development 2 Pituitary: A gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and that control other glands-strat of the hormone process 3 Pituitary produces hormones that stimulate the adrenal gland; to glands located above the kidneys, that produce hormones including stress hormones 4 HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis; a sequence of hormone production that originates in the hypothalamus, moves to pituitary, and then to the adrenal glands, hormones follow this route 5 HGP(hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad) axis; Production of hormone sequence that originates in the hypothalamus moves to pituitary than in ends up in gonad 6 Gonads enlarge and increase production of sex hormones; estradiol; considered the chief estrogen, females produce a lot of this and testosterone; known of the androgens males hormones and found in great amounts in males 7 Sex hormone affect the bodys shape and function producing more hormones with stress and immunity, 8 increase in both hormones produces mature ova or sperm 9 Hormonal increased affect psychopathology; psycolgical disorders increase males; schizophrenic and females become depressed Body Rhythms 0 Biorhythms; in day-light cycle of biological activity occurs every 24 hrs; circadian rhythm; 1 Hormones regulated that affect sleep appetite stress, HPA causes phase delay in sleep-wake cycles; screwing up with the circadian rhythm in teens 2 Biology and culture make teens more and more sleep-deprived ; sleepy teenagers=problems, health wise and emotionally wise also Age and Puberty 0 Genes and Gender: Two thirds of the variation in age for puberty is through genetics; also with ethnicity 1 Genes on sex chromosomes have a marked effect. Girls are usually a few months ahead of boys in growth 2 Body Fat: Heavy girls reach menarce years before lighter girls, most girls are 100 pounds when getting first period 3 Secular trend; more foods allowing biological advances. 4 Leptin; A hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty. Increase in childhood and peak at 12. This causes increase in fat; affects appetite more in females 5 Stress: Makes reproduction difficult in adulthood by hastening hormonal aspect; anything wrong with parent childs period is earlier 6 It would be better for delayed puberty for children in that kind of situation- no reason why it happens early for them Too early, Too late 0 No one wants to be first or late 1 Girls tend to be shy and not like being first as they are different and have lower self esteem or older boyfriends helping them gain high status makes them different 2 Boys; more aggressive lawbreaking when early matured have more trouble with parents and schools; anger maybe be sadness when matured 3 For both, leads to sexual acitivity teenager parents, leading to depression and psychosocial problems 4 Increases rate of all adolescent problems whether early or late Growing bigger and stronger 0 Growth spurt; sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty. Each body party increased, this the start of puberty, from core 1 Sequence: Weight Height Muscle; Growth spurt hits children eat more and gain weight. 2 Height Spurts follow weight spurt, than after that muscle spurt happens. Than everything of early puberty is gone by late. 3 Lungs triple in weight; more deep breaths; heart doubles in size; higher blood pressure lower pulse 4 Weight height before muscle and internal organs grow; lymphoid system decreases; leading mild asthma to disappear 5 SKIN AND HAIR; skin; oiler, prone to acne and sweatier and hair becomes coarser and darker; hair growth in many places the amount that grows depends on genes and hormones; hair becomes display of sexuality Sexual Maturation 0 Primary Sex characteristics: the parts of the body that are directing involved in reproduction including the vagina penis.. – Conception/pregnancy involved- everything increases and matures 1 Secondary Sex Characteristics; physical traits that are not involved in reproduction but indicate sexual maturity such as man bread, woman breast 2 Wide hips and breast= womanhood, manhood=tall and board shoulders Nutrition 0 Cohort and age big factors to an adolescents nutrition Diet Deficiencies 1 Iron calcium zinc plus more common after puberty, anemia common among teenage girls for boys if they push body too much will be iron deficient 2 Boys require more iron to be healthy, 15% average teen drinks enough daily intake of calcum a day, many of them will develop osteoporosis with little calcium intake and lots of soda in life Body Image 0 Body Image; a persons idea of how his or her body looks; one reason for poor nutrition 1 Not many welcomed all physical change with bodies, sacrifice health and exaggerate imperfections to improve image 2 Being satisfied with body image has to do with low self esteem 3 Usually hormones of puberty awaken with sexual interest. Both sexes become less happy and more superficial in what they
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