Textbook Notes - Chapter 12 (Adolescence: Social and Emotional Development)

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Triciavan Rhijn

Human Development – Chapter 12: Adolescence: Social and Emotional Development Did you know: D1 Canadian adolescent males are as concerned about occupational choices as Canadian adolescent females are. > Though females remain more likely to integrate their occupational and family plans, studies show an equal concern for occupational choices. D2 The idea of adolescents being in a constant state of rebellion against their parents is a stereotype that is no longer true. > Parents and adolescents are usually quite similar in their values and beliefs regarding social, political, religious and economic issues. D3 Parents should not necessarily fear peer pressure. > Parents and peers are usually complementary rather than competing influences. D4 Teen sexual activity has been declining in Canada since the early 1990s. > Despite social misperceptions, the self-reported incidence of teen sexual activity is gradually declining. D5 Suicide is the second leading cause of death among Canadian adolescents. > Motor vehicle accidents are the number one cause of death among Canadian adolescents L01: Discuss the formation of identity in adolescence Development of Identity: Who Am I? Erikson and Identity Development • Identity vs. identity diffusion o Primary task to develop ego identity: a sense of who they are and what they stand for o Psychological moratorium: a time-out period when adolescents experiment with different roles, values, beliefs, and relationships. o Identity crisis: a turning point in development during which one examines one’s values and makes decisions about life roles Identity Statuses • James Marcia (1991) – four identity statuses: exploration involves active questioning and searching and commitment is a stable investment in one’s goals, values and beliefs o Identity diffusion: an identity status that characterizes those who have no commitments and who are not in the process of exploring alternatives o Foreclosure status: an identity status that characterizes those who have made commitments without considering alternatives o Moratorium: an identity status that characterizes those who are actively exploring alternatives in an attempt to form an identity o Identity achievement: an identity status that characterizes those who have explored alternatives and have developed commitments. Table 12.1 The Four Identity Statuses of James Marcia COMMITMENT EXPLORATION Yes No Yes Identity Achievement Foreclosure • Most developed in terms of identity • Has commitments without considering • Has experienced a period of exploration alternatives • Has developed commitments • Commitments based on identification with • Has a sense of personal well-being, parents, teachers or other authority figures high self-esteem and self-acceptance • Often authoritarian and inflexible • Cognitive flexible • Sets goals and works toward achieving them No Moratorium Identity Diffusion • Actively exploring alternatives • Least developed in terms of identity • Attempting to make choices with regard • Lacks commitments to occupation, ideological beliefs, and • Not trying to form commitments so on • May be carefree and uninvolved or • Often anxious and intense unhappy and lonely • Ambivalent feelings toward parents and • May be angry, alienated, rebellious authority figures Ethnicity and Development of Identity • Development of self-identity is key task for all adolescents • More complex for adolescents in ethnic minorities – two sets of cultural values, often experience prejudice and discrimination • Ethnic Identity: a sense of belonging to an ethnic group o Stage One: Unexamined ethnic identity – the first stage of ethnic identity development, similar to the diffusion or foreclosure identity statuses o Stage Two: Ethnic identity search: the second stage of identity development, similar to the moratorium identity status o Stage Three: Achieved ethnic identity: the final stage of ethnic identity development, similar to the identity achievement status Sex and Development of Identity • Erikson believed that sex differences affected the development of identity (1968, 1975) – assuming relationships were more important to a women’s development of identity; occupational and ideological matters more important to men; women – roles as wife and mother • Now – equal concern about occupational choices; sex difference may still persist as women assume primary responsibility for child rearing Development of the Self-Concept • As children approach adolescence, they begin to incorporate psychological characteristics and social relationships into their self-descriptions • Self-concept more differentiated – add more categories to self-description • Social roles enter self-descriptions • Different roles with different people (anxious and angry with parents, fun and talkative with friends) – peaking at age 14 and then decline • Advanced formal-operational skills allow this integration Self-Esteem • Self-esteem declines as child moves from middle childhood to about age 12 or 13 • Cognitive maturity makes them aware of disparity between ideal self and real self – physical appearance • Self-esteem gradually improves; adolescents develop academic, physical, social skills and grow less self-critical • For most – temporary discomfort; for others, serious consequences (depression, suicidal) L02: Discuss relationships with parents and peers during adolescence Relationships with Parents and Peers Relationships with Parents • Less time with parents, interact more with mothers than fathers; more conflicts with moms than dads; mothers more supportive and know them better; relationships with fathers often associated with depression in adolescents • Less time with parents – striving for independence • Those who feel close to parents have more self-reliance and self-esteem, better school performance, fewer adjustment problems • Conflicts – everyday family life: chores, homework, curfew, appearance, finances, dating - - - control • Parenting styles – best: authoritative homes (exert control & explain why) result in most competent behaviour Relationships with Peers • Peers – source of activities, influence and support; friends of same sex are seen as to be as supportive as parents, grade 10, more supportive than parents • Friendships in Adolescence: have more friends than younger children; see friends frequently/interact o Differences between childhood and adolescents friends: stress acceptance, intimate self- disclosure, mutual understanding; stress loyalty and trustworthiness; more sharing and less competing o Most often same age and race and gender, similar attitudes about drinking, drugs and sex o Contribute to positive self-concept & psychological adjustments o Girls more likely to engage in unstructured activities (music, talking), boys engage in organized activities like sports o Peer Groups: cliques (5-10 people who share activities and confidences) and crowds (lar
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