Textbook Notes - Chapter 11 (Adolescence: Physical and Cognitive Development)

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Triciavan Rhijn

Human Development: Chapter 11 – Adolescence: Physical and Cognitive Development Did you know: D1 – Girls are not usually fertile immediately after their first menstrual period. > Girls should not assume they cannot become pregnant at this time because variations in the timing of ovulation are common. D2 – Physical maturity influences boys’ and girls’ self-esteem differently. > Though boys who mature early often have higher self-esteem, early maturing girls can encounter negative social experiences. D3 – Accidents are the number one cause of deaths for Canadian adolescents. > Each week, 32 Canadian youths die in motor vehicle accidents. D4 – It is normal for adolescents to think of themselves as action heroes and to act as though they are made of steel. > High-risk behaviours seem to disregard the need to keep one’s self safe. Bad things won’ happen to me! D5 – The number of hours worked after school can affect school performance. > This is true. Working 30 hours per week or more places students at high risk to drop out of school. Working less than 10 hours can prompt students to manager their time productively. • Except for infancy, more changes occur during adolescence than any other time of life • Time of in between • G. Stanley Hall – believed adolescence is marked by turmoil and used the German term Sturm und Drang (storm and stress) to refer to conflicts of adolescence • Others see it as a period of biological, cognitive, social and emotional functioning are reorganized L01: Describe the key events of puberty and their relationship to social development Puberty: The Biological Eruption Puberty is a stage of development characterized by reaching sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce. • Puberty is controlled by a feedback loop (a system in which glands regulate each other’s functioning through a series of hormonal messages) • Sex hormones also trigger development of primary and secondary characteristics o Primary sex characteristics: structures that make reproduction possible – ovaries, vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes / penis, testes, prostate gland, seminal vesicals o Secondary sex characteristics: physical indicators – breasts, lower voice, pubic hair The Adolescent Growth Spurt • Girls height age 10, boys age 12; reach peak growth in height about 2 years after spurt begins; boys add 10 cm or 4” per year, girls 7.5cm or 3” per year; overall boys 37cm or 14.5” and girls 33cm or 13” • Spurt in weight about 1.5 yrs after height • Active 14 & 15 year old boys may consume 3-4,000 calories a day without becoming obese • Body shapes differ between boys and girls – girls: more rounded, broader hips compared with shoulders; boys: broader shoulders compared to hips, gain twice as much muscle tissue • Asynchronous Growth: different parts of the body grow at different rates (hands, legs); boys stop growing out of pants about a year before they stop growing out of their jackets • Secular Trend: a historical trend toward increasing adult height and earlier puberty; growing more rapidly and ending up taller than children before; earlier onset of puberty o However, children from middle-and upper-class families in developed nations, including Canada, no longer grow taller, whereas poorer counterparts continue to gain in height from generation to generation. Improved nutrition likely plays a key role Changes in Boys • Pituitary gland stimulates testes to increase output of testosterone, leading to further development of male genitals (testes growth about age 11.5), testicular growth further accelerates testosterone production and other pubertal changes; penis spurts a year later, and even later pubic hair • Underarm and facial hair appear about age 15; voice deepens at age 14 or 15 (growth of voice box/larynx, lengthening of vocal cords) • Testosterone triggers development of acne (75-90% of teens) • Erections infrequent until age 13 or 14, may experience unwanted erections • Semen: fluid that contains sperm and substances that nourish and help transport sperm • Nocturnal Emissions: emission of seminal fluid while asleep (wet dreams) • Mature sperm found in ejaculatory emissions around age 15 • Gynecomastia – enlargement of breasts – declines in a year or two (stems from small amount of female sex hormones secreted by testes) • Epiphyseal closure: prevents long bones from making further gains in length (about age 20/21) Changes in Girls • Pituitary glands signals ovaries to boost estrogen production, stimulates growth of breast tissue as early as ages 8 or 9, begin to enlarge at age 10; reach full size in about 4 years; mammary glands do not mature fully until woman has a baby; estrogen promotes growth of fatty and supporting tissue in hips and buttocks; at about age 10.5 or 11, pubic and underarm hair • Estrogen causes labia, vagina and uterus to develop during puberty, androgens cause clitoris to develop; vaginal lining varies in thickness according to amount of estrogen in bloodstream • Menarche: (first menstruation) between ages of 11 and 14 , average age is 12.5 o Hypothesis: girls much reach certain body weight to trigger pubertal changes, body fat • Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle: estrogen and progesterone levels in girls vary markedly and regulate menstrual cycle; girls usually begin to ovulate only 12-18 months after menarche, usually 28 days and are normally irregular for the first few years; most cycles during first 2 years after menarche occur without ovulation Early vs Late Maturers • Early maturing boys tend to be more popular than late-maturing peers, more likely to be leaders in school, more poised, relaxed, good-natured, edge on sports… associated with greater risks of aggression and delinquency, substance abuse, too early expectation, sexual opportunities • Early maturing girls may feel awkward, physical changes, height, developing breasts, boys may tease; at risk for psychological problems and substance abuse; lower grades, engage in sexual activity • Body image: by age 18, more satisfied with bodies; teen girls concerned about weight, teen boys – gain weight and build muscle L02: Discuss health in adolescence, focusing on causes of death and eating disorders Health in Adolescence – 18% of nation’s adolescents have at least one serious health problem Death and Injuries • Death rates low in adolescence, nearly twice as great for males than females • Unintentional injury number one cause (73% - 1 youth dying every 5 hours in Canada; motor vehicle accidents cause 60% of these deaths); linked to likelihood of taking chances, impulsivity, overestimation of skills, feeling of invincibility. Nutrition • Average girl needs 1800-2400 calories per day • Average boy needs 2200-3200 calories per day • Nutritional needs vary according to activity level and stage of pubertal development; use twice as much calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, nitrogen • Teens likely to obtain less vitamin A, thiamine, iron – but more fat, sugar and sodium than recommended • Irregular eating patterns – skipping breakfast; relying on fast food/junk food Eating Disorders • In the section on cognitive development, we see that teens tend to think that others are paying a great deal of attention to their appearance • Anorexia Nervosa: extreme fear of being heaving – dramatic weight loss, distorted body image, resistance to eating enough to maintain healthful weight; female to male ratio 10-1 of greater risk; mostly teens and young adults; ; can drop 25% or more of their weight within a year; can affect ovulation, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, osteoporosis, mortality • Bulimia Nervosa: recurrent cycles of binge eating and purging; vomiting; strict dieting or fasting, overuse of laxatives, engaging in demanding exercise regimes – affects menstrual cycles • Perspectives on Eating Disorders: teens live in a society of quick fixes and immediate feedback; risk factor stems from child abuse, particularly sexual abuse • Treatment: admission to hosp
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