Textbook Notes - Chapter 9 (Middle Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development)

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Triciavan Rhijn

Human Development: Chapter 9 Middle Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development Did you know: D1 Baby fat in early childhood can remain a lifelong struggle. > Statistically, most overweight children become overweight adults. D2 Chemical food additives are not a cause of hyperactivity. > Though in the 1970s a widely held view was that ADHD was related to food additives, researchers now generally agree that food colouring and preservatives do not cause ADHD. D3 Stimulants are often used to treat children who are already hyperactive. > Stimulants such as Ritalin are the most widespread treatment for ADHD. D4 Two children can answer exactly the same items on an intelligence test correctly, yet one can be above average in intelligence and the other below average. > This is true, because IQ tests include both mental age and chronological age as factors when calculating IQ. L01: Describe trends in physical development in middle childhood. Following the growth trends of early childhood, boys and girls continue to gain a little over 5 cm (2) in height per year until adolescent growth spurt. Avg weight gain between ages 6-12 is 5-7 lbs a year Nutrition and Growth In middle childhood, average body weight doubles; spend lots of energy in physical activity and play; school children eat more than preschoolers; avg 4-6 year old needs 1400 calories per day; avg 7-10 year old needs 2000 calories Sex similarities and differences in physical growth: boys slightly heavier, girls begin adolescent growth spurt and surpass boys in height & weight until age 13/14; paralleled by increased muscle strength in both genders; beginning at age 11, boys develop more muscle and girls develop more fat Overweight in Children 8% of children and youth obese; 18% overweight often rejected by peers, focus of ridicule, poor at sports, risk of health problems Causes: heredity; family, peers and environment L02: Describe changes in motor development in middle childhood. The school years are marked by increases in childs speed, strength, agility, and balance. These developments lead to more skilled motor activities. Gross Motor Skills Throughout middle childhood, show steady improvement in ability to perform gross motor skills Hopping, jumping, climbing by age 6; by age 7 pedalling, balancing on bike; ages 8-10 showing balance, coordination, strength Muscles grow stronger, neural pathways that connect cerebellum to cortex become more myelinated Experience refines sensorimotor abilities Reaction time baseball, tennis gradually improves to about age 18 Fine Motor Skills By age 6-7 children can tie shoelaces, hold pencils, fasten buttons, zippers, brush teeth, wash, coordinate fork and knife, use chopsticks Sex Differences Boys and girls perform similarly in most motor activities Boys show slightly more strength, especially in forearms Girls show slightly greater limb coordination and overall flexibility Puberty differences favour boys Exercise and Fitness Reduces risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, certain caners; better self-image and coping skills Over half of children aged 5-17 are not active enough for optimal growth and development Cardiac and muscular fitness developed in aerobic (running, walking, swimming, cycling, jumping rope) but phys. Ed programming declining over several decades L03: Discuss ADHD and learning disabilities Certain disabilities of childhood are most apt to be noticed in the middle childhood years, when the child enters school. The school setting requires that a child sit still, pay attention, and master certain academic skills. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Shows excessive inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity (excessive restlessness); occurs by age 7; impair ability to function in school, cannot sit still, difficulty getting along with others; 1- 5% of school-age children, more common in boys; ADHD sometimes over-diagnosed Causes: genetic, brain chemical dopamine; Joel Nigg lack of executive control of the brain over motor and more primitive functions Treatment and Outcome: Stimulants (Ritalin), promote activity of brain chemicals dopamine and noradrenaline stimulate executive centre of brain; increasing attention span and improving academic performance Learning Disabilities Dyslexia a reading disorder letter reversals, mirror reading, slow reading, and reduced comprehension o 1 in 6 Canadians o Origins: theories focus on ways in which sensory and neurological problems may contribute to reading problems; genetic factors appear to be involved; 25-65% of children how have one dysleic parent are dyslexic themselves; 40% of siblings of children with dyslexia are dyslexic Genetic factors may give rise to neurological problems or circulation problems in left hemisphere of brain Focus on phonological proessing Learning disabilities: disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skills o May persist through life, but early recognition and remediation may help children learn how to compensate for disability Educating Children Who Have Disabilities Treatment focuses on remediation; highly structured exercises to help them Mainstreaming: placing children with disabilities in classrooms with children without disabilities adapted for the needs L04: Describe Piagets concrete-operational stagePiaget: The Concrete-Operational Stage Concrete operations: 3 stage in Piagets scheme, characterized by flexible, reversible thought concerning tangible objects and events Ages 7-12, showing beginnings of adult logic o Concrete-operational thought is reversible and flexible o Children are less egocentric than preoperational children o Decentration simultaneous focusing on more than one aspect or dimension of a problem or situation o Conservation: concrete-operational children show understanding of the laws of conservation Transivity Transivity: the principle that if A > B and B > C, then A > C. Asking children to place objects in a series or order according to some property (age, height, weight) Seriation: placing objects in an order or series according to a property or trait Class Inclusion: pre-operational child could not focus on two subclasses (dog and at) and the larger subclass at the same time (animals); concrete-operational can Applications of Piagets Theory to Education: learning involves active discovery; instruction should be geared to childs level of development L05: Discuss Piagets and Kohlbergs theories of moral development On a cognitive level, moral development concerns the basis on which children judge that an act is right or wrong. Piaget and Kohlberg believed that moral reasoning undergoes the same cognitive- developmental pattern around the world. The moral considerations that children weight at a give
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