Chapter 2 Notes

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Chapter 2Human Development Cells in the human body contain 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs with 1 chromosome in each pair inherited from the mother and the other from the father Chromosomes sausageshaped structure in the nucleus of cells containing genes which are paired except in reproductive cellsDeoxyribonucleic Acid DNA long strand of cell material that stores and transfers genetic information in all life formsGenes segment of DNA contained coded instructions for the growth and functioning of the organism y Genes contain paired sequences of chemicals called nucleotides and these sequences comprise instructions for the functioning and replication of the cells y 23000 genes in our 46 chromosomes Genome entire store of an organisms hereditary informationGenotype organisms unique genetic inheritancePhenotype organisms actual characteristics derived from its genotypeDominantRecessive Inheritance pattern of inheritance in which a pair of chromosomes contains one dominant and one recessive gene but only the dominant gene is expressed in the phenotypeAllele on a pair of chromosomes each of two forms of a geneIncomplete Dominnance form of dominantrecessive inheritance in which the phenotype is influenced by primarily the dominant gene but also to some extent by the recessive geney Most characteristics in human development are not determined by a single pair of genes y More commonly the influence of genes is a consequence of polygenic inheritance Polygenic inheritance expression of phenotypic characteristics due to the interaction of multiple genesGene Therapy method of treating genetic disorders that involves replacing the affected genes with genes that do not have the disorderRegulator Gene gene that directs the activities of other genesy Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes one pair is the sex chromosomes Sex Chromosome determine whether an organism is male XY or female XX
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