Chapter 7 - Human Development

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Chapter 7Human DevelopmentCultural Models cognitive structures pertaining to common cultural activitiesPhysical Growth and Sensory Development Body Mass Index BMI measure of the ratio of weight to height y 6 to 10 year olds have the lowest y Boys have more muscle and girls have more fat at this agey Ages 6 to 12 they will loose all 20 of their primary teeth and replace them with their permanent teeth y Sight and hearing both change hearing usually for the better and sight for the worstMyopia Nearsighted visual condition of being unable to see distant objects y Rates are highest in the developed countries yof children in developed countries need glasses by the end of middle childhood Nutrition and Malnutritiony Children who were classified in early childhood as having high nutrient levels were more likely to explore new environments persist in a frustrating situation more energetic less anxious and showed more positive emotion y For many children in developed countries being overweight is a problemOverweight in children defined as having a BMI exceeding 18Obese in children defined as having a BMI exceeding 21A variety of changes have contributed to the rise in childhood obesity y Change in dietsfast foods high in fat content and soft drinks that are high in sugar content y Televisiondeveloped countries watch at least 2 hours of television a day y Internet and electronic games y Genetics also make a contribution for obesityprovide only a risk for overweight and obesity not a definite destinyBeing obese increases the likelihood that a child will be socially excluded and the object of ridicule by peers y Obesity is associated with undesirable characteristics such as being lazy sloppy ugly and stupid y Risk factor for a variety of emotional and behavioural problems y Can result in diabetes which can lead to problems such as blindness kidney failure and stroke y Obesity proves hard to shake from childhood to adulthood Illness Death rates are lower during middle childhood than any other period of the lifespanAsthma chronic illness of the lungs characterized by wheezing coughing and shortness of breath y Asthma attacks in which breathing is especially difficult y Triggered by cold weather exercise illnesses allergies emotional stress or for no clear reason y Reduced through medical injections and inhalers y Highest in middle childhood and are increasing worldwide y Boys are at higher risk than girls are y Risk factors are low birth weight having a parent who smokes living in poverty and obesity y Common features of todays households contribute to asthma y Hygiene Hypothesissuggesting that high standards of cleanliness and sanitation expose children t fewer viruses and bacteria and consequently they have fewer illnesses in their early years that would strengthen their immune systems and make them less susceptible y High among African American childrenoften live in urban neighborhoods where air quality is poorInjury y Children in middle childhood are more agile and better at anticipating situations that may cause injury y Most common cause of injury in middle childhood is automobile accidents followed by bicycle accidents Gross Motor Developmenty Balance improves y Become stronger y Coordination advances y Grater agility y Reaction time becomes fasterFine Motor Development y Makes great advancesy Especially evident in two areas drawing and writing y In drawing they learn how to draw 3 dimensional by overlapping objects in the picture y By age 6 most children are able to write the letters of the alphabet their own names and numbers 1 to 10y By age 8 or 9 most children can learn to cursive writeConcrete Operations
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