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FRHD 1010 (275)
Susan Chuang (170)
Chapter 1-4


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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD 1010Chapter 1 SummarySection 1Human Development Today and its Origins 11 Developed countries have been the focus of most research of human development but they hold only about 18 of the worlds population The majority of the pop 82 live in developing countries and as the total pop rises from 7 billion now to 9 billion in 2050 nearly all the increase will take place in developing countries Most people who live in developing countries are poor and live in rural areas but these countries are experiencing rapid economic development and massive migration to urban areas Also young people are receiving increasing levels of education as their countries become wealthier and enter the global economy 12 Socioeconomic status SESincludes educational level income level and occupational status It influences access to resources such as education and health care Gender shapes expectations and opportunities in most cultures through out life Ethnicity often includes a distinct cultural identity 13 Natural selection results in species change because the young who are best adapted to the environment will be most likely to survive and reproduce Humans arose from earlier hominids and developed distinctive characteristics such as large brains long infancy tool use and control of fire Our species Homo sapiens first appeared around 200000 years ago14 The upper Paleolithic period 4000010000 years ago is the first time human cultures became distinct from one another in their art and tools During the Neolithic period 100005000 years ago humans first domesticated plants and animals The first civilizations around 5000 years ago marked the origin of writing specialized work and a centralized state 15 Humans are one species but since the birth of culture human groups have developed remarkably diverse ways of life Our exceptionally large brain has allowed us to create cultural practices that enable us to live in a wide range of environments Key terms Total fertility rate TFR Developed countriesWorlds most economically developed and affluent countriesDeveloping countriescountries that have lower levels of income than developed countriescollectivisticcultural values such as obedience or group harmony caste systemin Hindu culture of India an inherited social hierarchy determined by birth Socio economic status SESpersons social class including educational level and occupational statusOntogeniccharacteristic pattern of individual development in a speciesPhylogenicpertaining to the development of a species Evolutionary psychologybranch of psychology that examines how patterns of human functioning and behaviour have resulted in adaptations to evolutionary conditionsSection 2Theories of Human Development 16 Stage conceptions of the life span were developed thousands of years ago in the hindu greek and jerwish cultures There were 4 stages in the hindu conception 10 in the greek and 14 in the jewish All three conceptions concerned only men and ignored womens development 17 All three ancient conceptions are ideals in that they assume that life will go well and will continue in old age All view youth as the time of perpetration and immaturity adulthood as a time of great responsibilities and peak achievements and the final stages of life as a preparation of death 18 Freuds psychosexual theory of development emphasized the sexual drive as the primary motivator of human behavior He proposed five stages of psychosexual development but believed that the early stages were crucial and the that most of later development was determined by age 6 19Erikson proposed a psychologic theory of development that emphasized social and cultural influences and proposed that important changes take place through out the life spanAge Period Psychosocial stage Main development challenge Infancy Trust vs Mistrust Establish bond with trusted caregiver Toddlerhood Autonomy vs shame and doubtDevelop a healthy sense of self as distinct from othersEarly Childhood Initiative vs guilt Initiate activities in a purposeful way Middle Childhood Industry vs inferiorityBegin to learn knowledge and skills of culture AdolescenceIdentity vs identity confusion Develop a secure and coherent identityEarly Adulthood Intimacy vs isolation Establish a committed longterm love relationship Middle AdulthoodGenerativity vs stagnationCare for other and contribute to wellbieng of the young Late Adulthood Ego integrity vs despairEvaluate lifetime accept as it is 110Bronfenbrenners ecological theory emphasizes the different systems that interact in a persons development1 Microsystemsterm for the immediate environment the setting where people experience their daily activities Microsystems in most cultures include siblings parents and extended family2 Mesosystemthe network of interconnections between the various microsystems3 Exosystemrefers to societal institutions that have indirect but potentially important influences4 Macrosystemthe broad system of cultural beliefs and values and the economic and governmental systems that are built on beliefs and values5 Chronosystemchanges that occur in developmental circumstances over time both regarding individual development and historical changes 111In this book the life span is divided into 10 stages from prenatal development to late adulthood 112 Scientific method1 identifying a research question2 forming a hypothesis3 choosing a research method4 collecting data5 drawing conclusions that lead to new questions and hypothesis 113 Research on human development is required to follow ethical guidelines which are laid out by professional organizations and enforced by IRBS The Main guidelines
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