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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Unit 5: Toddlerhood  About ¼ of children worldwide have diets that are deficient in protein, nearly in all developing countries  By first birthday, height and weight of average children of developing countries are comparable to bottom %5 of developed countries Kwashiorkor- protein deficiency in childhood leading to symptoms such as lethargy, irritability, thinning hair, and swollen body, may be fatal (Body swells with water) Micronutrients- iron, zinc, vitamins A, B, C and D  Most crucial micronutrient deficiency worldwide Is iodine (1.3 of world’s population) -> Africa and South Asia  In children, inhibits cognitive development, deficiency in IQ (10-15 pts)  Makes toddlers more irritable and tired Early Brain Development  Distinguishes early brain development is the steep increase in SYNAPTIC DENSITY: number of synaptic connections among neurons  Peak production in our frontal lobes -> reasoning, planning, and creativity  In toddlerhood, frontal cortex are produced at mind-boggling rate of 2 million per second, by age 2 100 trillion  Peak synaptic density is end of toddler, third birthday Methods of assessing brain activity- provide evidence of rapid growth  1) EEG (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM) – measures the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex, allowing researches to measure overall activity of the cerebral cortex as well as activation of it  Sharp increase in toddlers in overall cortical activity from 18-24 months  2) fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)  Requires a person to lie still inside a machine that uses a magnetic field to record changes in blood flow and oxygen use in the brain in response to different kinds of stimulation, such as music  Can detect any part of brain  Assessing toddlers (age 21 months) and 3 as they slept, showed greater frontal lobe activity in response to speech, brains readiness for rapid language acquisition Sleep and more teething  Sleep declines in toddlers compared to neonates 15hrs – 12/13  Has a more night sleep and day waking arousal  Episodes of waking in the night increased in frequency Reasons: 1) Resurgence of teething 13-18 months ; molar bigger and painful 2) become aware of separation from parents room, and relieve it by going back to parents room In traditional cultures…  Sleeping alone is rare, mom may become pregnant so child may now sleep with older sibling or father Motor Development  On average, children begin to walk w/o support at about 11 months  Through the third year, gross motor skills continue to develop as they gain more flexibility and balance  Toddlers in traditional cultures are allowed slightly more mobility  They are equal to toddlers in developed countries in the development of gross motor skills  Ex. Toddlers in Africa tend to reach gross motor skills earlier than European backgrounds Milestones of Gross Motor Development Age (months) Milestone 9-16 stand alone 9-17 Walk w/o support 11-19 stand on one leg 11-21 climb onto chairs, beds, upstairs 13-17 walk backward 14-22 run 17-30 jump in place 16-30 walk on tiptoes 22-36 Walk up and down stairs Fine motor development Milestones Age (months) Milestone 7-15 holding writing instrument 8-16 co-ordinate actions of both hands 10-19 build tower of 2 blocks 10-21 scribble vigorously 12-18 feed self with spoon 15-23 Build tower of 3-4 blocks 20-28 draw straight line on paper 24-32 Brush teeth 26-34 Build tower of 8-10 blocks 29-37 Copy circle Toilet training  In 1957, 92% og American toddlers were toilet trained by 18 months, in more recent studies about 25% of toddlers by 18 months and 60% by their third birthday  Best to be patient with toddlers progress Signs of readiness: 1) Staying dry for an hour or two during the day 2) Regular bowel movements 3) Increased anticipation of the event through looks or words 4) Directly asking to use the toilet or wear underwear  At age 5, ¼ children still have occasional accidents  Toddlers in traditional cultures, older sibling or other older children are guides WEANING- cessation of breast feeding  The longest breast feeding continues into toddlerhood, the more challenging weaning becomes, toddler exercises intention behavior, can speak up  Ex. In tradition cultures, approach is gentle and gradual but becomes harsher If the toddler resist Bali: Cover breast in bitter herbs Turkey: tomato paste West Africa: grandma w/o milk Cognitive Developmental Theories- during toddlerhood the final two stages of sensorimotor development are completed Stage 5 – TERTIARY CIRCULAR MOTION  Toddler intentionally try out different behaviours to see what effects will be performed repeatedly Stage 6 – MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS  18-24 months toddlers think about the possibilities and select the actions most likely to achieve the desired outcome  Mental representations is a crucial milestone in cognitive development because it is the basis of the most important and most distinctly human cognitive abilities including language OBJECT PERMANANCE- is a major advance of cognitive development in toddlerhood DIFFERED IMITATION- Ability to repeat actions observed at an early time  Toddlers better than infants in different imitation due to advances in maturity of the brain (hippocampus->long term memory)  CATEGORIZATION- Ability to separate objects into categories ex. Looking at several different styles of houses is still a house VYGOTSKY’S THEORY (SOCIAL CULTURAL THEORY) VS. PIAGET’S THEORY  Social because children earn through interactions with others and require assistance from others in order to learn what they need to know  Cultural because what children need to know is determined by the culture they live in  Different from Piaget’s theory described earlier, which emphasizes the child’s interactions with the physical environment and views cognitive development as essentially the same across cultures 2 of Vygotskys most influential ideas: 1) ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT  Is the difference between skills and task that children can accomplish alone and those th
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