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FRHD 1020 (198)
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Chapter 2

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1020

COUPLE  &  FAMILY  RELATIONSHIPS:  CHAPTER  2   1     Women  and  Men   Sex  and  Gender  Differences     • The  differences  between  males  and  females  have  three  sources:   o The  physical  and  genetic  differences  between  the  sexes   o The  routine  ways  of  behaving  we  develop  over  the  years   o Our  individual  ideas  and  values   • The  word  sex  refers  to  the  biological  differences   • Women  can  produce  a  limited  number  of  children,  men  can  have  many   • Men  tend  to  be  taller  and  more  muscular   • Women  tend  to  live  longer  and  be  healthier  except  in  countries  with  high   childbirth  deaths   • Men  tend  to  be  better  at  tracking  direction  and  mentally  manipulating  objects   • Females  tend  to  be  more  fluent  in  language   • Knowing  the  sex  of  an  individual  shapes  how  we  behave  towards  that  person   • There  is  often  a  double  standard  in  sexuality,  where  men  are  allowed  more   freedom   • Gender  socialization  prepares  children  and  adolescents  for  the  tasks  that  they   will  perform  as  boys  and  girls,  as  women  and  men   • Gender  roles  are  the  socially  approved  way  of  behaving  as  males  and  females  in   society   • These  patterns  are  learned  and  sustained  through  daily  interaction     • The  family  is  the  first  and  most  powerful  socializer  but  if  their  values  differ  from   society’s  their  influence  may  be  limited     • As  children  get  older,  they  are  also  influenced  by  their  teachers,  peers,  and  the   media   • Gender  roles  do  not  always  stay  the  same     o Ex.  Pioneer  days   Gender  Differences  and  Family  Relationships   • In  the  19  Century  both  the  Roman  Catholic  church  and  many  Protestant   denominations  regarded  men  as  practical,  active  and  rational;  women  as  moral,   spiritual  and  emotional   • In  marriage,  they  were  combined  to  form  a  holy  union   • Men  were  expected  to  go  out  into  the  world  to  make  a  living  and  protect  the   family   • Women  were  to  make  the  home  a  place  where  family  members  were  nurtured   • Males  and  females  are  still  brought  up  to  relate  to  one  another  in  different  ways   o Adults  are  less  sensitive  to  boy’s  pain  than  girls   o Girls  are  less  likely  to  use  physical  aggression  and  rely  on  social   aggression   o Girls  are  less  likely  to  commit  violent  crimes   • When  men  talk  they  tend  to  be  concerned  with  reasoned  arguments  and  with   their  own  or  other’s  power  and  authority   • When  women  talk,  they  tend  to  focus  on  forming  connections   • Women  are  better  at  reading  and  sending  nonverbal  messages   • Women  often  use  intelligence,  interpersonal  skill,  sexuality,  deception,  and   avoidance  to  get  what  they  want   • It  is  accepted  that  males  are  more  sexually  promiscuous  and  they  tend  to  initiate   sexual  relations  more  than  women   • Affairs  by  men  are  regarded  more  leniently     • Men  are  often  the  principal  earner  because  they  have  higher  earning  jobs  than   traditional  female  occupations   • Women  have  more  responsibility  to  meeting  family  needs  and  fear  work   prevents  them  from  doing  this     • Social  norms  encourage  fathers  to  be  more  involved  with  sons  than  daughters   • Marital  satisfaction  tends  to  be  lower  after  the  birth  of  a  girl  especially  if  it  was   unplanned   • Women  are  more  likely  to  be  single  parents,  to  live  in  poverty,  to  live  alone,  and   to  be  widowed   • Men  are  more  likely  to  remarry  after  being  widowed  or  divorced   • Women  and  girls  experience  more  sexual  and  physical  abuse   Changing  Family  Forms   • The  “traditional”  family  model  persists  as  an  ideal  in  much  thinking  about  the   family   • High  divorce  rates,  teen  pregnancy,  and  lone  parenthood  have  been  blamed  for   many  social  ills,  such  as  delinquency,  child  neglect,  abuse,  and  poverty   • Some  feel  the  remedy  is  to  encourage  marriage,  make  divorce  more  difficult   • Government  policy  assumes  that  the  household  and  family  are  the  same   • If  two  people  live  together  with  children,  they  are  responsible  for  them   • If  they  live  together  for  a  certain  amount  of  time,  they  are  considered  common   law   • 2006  census  –  less  than  half  of  all  families  were  “traditional”  with  two  parents   and  children  living  together   • A  growing  number  of  children  live  with  parents  in  common  law  unions,   especially  in  Quebec   • There  were  more  unmarried  couples  living  together  than  married   • Ontario  has  the  highest  proportion  of  married  couples,  Manitoba  has  the  largest   percentage  of  lone-­‐parent  families   • Young  adults  (20-­‐29)  living  with  their  parents  was  highest  in  Newfoundland  and   lowest  in  Alberta,  and  Saskatchewan,  highest  in  Toronto  (57.9%)   • Nunavut  had  the  largest  proportion  of  households  with  children,  households   with  five  or  more  people,  and  of  children  living  with  grandparents  and  other   relatives   • 73%  of  women  with  children  under  16  had  paid  jobs  compared  to  39%  in  1976   • Changing  family  patterns  challenge  accepted  practices  in  many  ways:     o Suspending  a  child,  asking  for  parent  volunteers,  etc.  ignores  the  fact  that   many  families  have  two  parents  that  work   o Children  have  a  variety  of  caregivers,  not  only  biological  parents   COUPLE  &  FAMILY  RELATIONSHIPS:  CHAPTER  2   3     o School  practices  often  discriminate  against  children  with  nontraditional   families  (family  trees)   o Non-­‐biological  children  aren’t  considered  a  parent’s  own     o Resistance  to  give  non-­‐traditional  methods  the  same  status  as  biological   reproduction   o Mentally  and  physically  challenged  people  want  the  same  rights   o They  can’t  be  considered  sexless  beings  –  they  want  a  family,  marriage,   children   o Same  sex  couples  are  the  norm  and  are  having  children   Racial  and  Ethnic  Differences     • The  2006  census  counted  more  than  200  ethnic  origins   • 20%  reported  that  their  mother  tongue  was  neither  French  or  English   English  and  French  Canadians   • English-­‐Canadian  society  has  roots  in  Britain   • English  Canadians  have  always  seen  the  family  as  responsible  for  its  members   • Aboriginal  families  and  French-­‐Canadian  families  usually  value  ties  with   extended  family  members  more  than  English  Canadians   • Traditional  Quebec  society  emphasized  four  elements:   o The  Roman  Catholic  Church  defined  family  roles  and  education  goals   o Rural  lifestyle  was  central   o Large  families  were  idealized   o French  language   • English  Canadians  valued  “masculine”  qualities   • French  Canadians  perceived  as  “feminine”  –  religious,  elegant,  and  civilized   • During  the  Quiet  Revolution  of  the  1960s  education  replaces  religion,  modern   industrial  economy  replaced  the  rural  lifestyle,  large  families  lost  their  prestige   with  contraceptives   • French  language  made  central  to  Quebec   Aboriginal  Peoples   • Aboriginal  families  displayed  two  types  of  societies,  either  on  clans  or  on  small   migratory  hunting  groups   • Clan  lineages  (Iroquoian  and  Pacific-­‐coast  societies)  held  rights  to  specific  tracts   of  land  and  controlled  specific  trading  routes   • Conflicts  were  settled  though  feasts  or  potlatches   • Migratory  hunting  groups  (the  Inuit,  northern  Ojibway,  and  Swampy  cree)   consisted  of  related  hunters  and  their  wives,  children,  parents,  and  grandparents   • Plains  buffalo  hunting-­‐societies  resembled  both  the  clan  and  migratory  groups   • Missionaries  and  government  officials  saw  aboriginal  customs  as  backwards  and   they  tried  to  wipe  them  out     • Residential  schools  –  children  were  isolated,  Christianized,  experienced  abuse   • The  Aboriginal  population  has  been  growing  six  times  faster  than  the  Canadian   population   • More  limited  than  those  of  the  general  population  but  this  is  deceasing  due  to   their  communities  becoming  more  diverse  so  there  is  more  variety  in  levels  of   education  and  income   Patterns  of  Immigration  to  Canada   The  Desire  to  Retain  Canada’s  “British”  Character   • For  many  years  both  federal  and  provincial  governments  placed  many  barriers   to  the  immigration  of  non-­‐whites,  of  certain  religious  groups,  and  others   regarded  as  hard  to  assimilate  into  British-­‐based  culture     • Chinese  brought  over  to  mine,  work  on  the  railways  and  were  then  denied  the   right  to  vote,  enter  certain  professions,  or  reside  in  a  provincial  home  for  the   aged  and  infirm   • Head  tax  to  discourage  Chinese  immigrants   • 1923  –  Chinese  Exclusion  Act  –  made  it  nearly  impossible  for  Chinese  to  enter   until  its  repeal  in  1947   • The  federal  g   • Government  ruled  that  immigrant  had  to  come  from  their  lands  of  origin  in  a   continuous  journey     • Blacks  originally  came  as  slaves,  some  as  black  Loyalists   • KKK  recruited  members  from  Canada  –  against  Jews,  Catholics,  and  French   Canadians   • Jews  fleeing  Nazi  Germany  were  de
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