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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1020
Tuuli Kukkonen

COUPLE & FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS: CHAPTER 2 1 Women and Men Sex and Gender Differences  The differences between males and females have three sources: o The physical and genetic differences between the sexes o The routine ways of behaving we develop over the years o Our individual ideas and values  The word sex refers to the biological differences  Women can produce a limited number of children, men can have many  Men tend to be taller and more muscular  Women tend to live longer and be healthier except in countries with high childbirth deaths  Men tend to be better at tracking direction and mentally manipulating objects  Females tend to be more fluent in language  Knowing the sex of an individual shapes how we behave towards that person  There is often a double standard in sexuality, where men are allowed more freedom  Gender socialization prepares children and adolescents for the tasks that they will perform as boys and girls, as women and men  Gender roles are the socially approved way of behaving as males and females in society  These patterns are learned and sustained through daily interaction  The family is the first and most powerful socializer but if their values differ from society’s their influence may be limited  As children get older, they are also influenced by their teachers, peers, and the media  Gender roles do not always stay the same o Ex. Pioneer days Gender Differences and Family Relationships  In the 19 Century both the Roman Catholic church and many Protestant denominations regarded men as practical, active and rational; women as moral, spiritual and emotional  In marriage, they were combined to form a holy union  Men were expected to go out into the world to make a living and protect the family  Women were to make the home a place where family members were nurtured  Males and females are still brought up to relate to one another in different ways o Adults are less sensitive to boy’s pain than girls o Girls are less likely to use physical aggression and rely on social aggression o Girls are less likely to commit violent crimes  When men talk they tend to be concerned with reasoned arguments and with their own or other’s power and authority  When women talk, they tend to focus on forming connections  Women are better at reading and sending nonverbal messages  Women often use intelligence, interpersonal skill, sexuality, deception, and avoidance to get what they want  It is accepted that males are more sexually promiscuous and they tend to initiate sexual relations more than women  Affairs by men are regarded more leniently  Men are often the principal earner because they have higher earning jobs than traditional female occupations  Women have more responsibility to meeting family needs and fear work prevents them from doing this  Social norms encourage fathers to be more involved with sons than daughters  Marital satisfaction tends to be lower after the birth of a girl especially if it was unplanned  Women are more likely to be single parents, to live in poverty, to live alone, and to be widowed  Men are more likely to remarry after being widowed or divorced  Women and girls experience more sexual and physical abuse Changing Family Forms  The “traditional” family model persists as an ideal in much thinking about the family  High divorce rates, teen pregnancy, and lone parenthood have been blamed for many social ills, such as delinquency, child neglect, abuse, and poverty  Some feel the remedy is to encourage marriage, make divorce more difficult  Government policy assumes that the household and family are the same  If two people live together with children, they are responsible for them  If they live together for a certain amount of time, they are considered common law  2006 census – less than half of all families were “traditional” with two parents and children living together  A growing number of children live with parents in common law unions, especially in Quebec  There were more unmarried couples living together than married  Ontario has the highest proportion of married couples, Manitoba has the largest percentage of lone-parent families  Young adults (20-29) living with their parents was highest in Newfoundland and lowest in Alberta, and Saskatchewan, highest in Toronto (57.9%)  Nunavut had the largest proportion of households with children, households with five or more people, and of children living with grandparents and other relatives  73% of women with children under 16 had paid jobs compared to 39% in 1976  Changing family patterns challenge accepted practices in many ways: COUPLE & FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS: CHAPTER 2 3 o Suspending a child, asking for parent volunteers, etc. ignores the fact that many families have two parents that work o Children have a variety of caregivers, not only biological parents o School practices often discriminate against children with nontraditional families (family trees) o Non-biological children aren’t considered a parent’s own o Resistance to give non-traditional methods the same status as biological reproduction o Mentally and physically challenged people want the same rights o They can’t be considered sexless beings – they want a family, marriage, children o Same sex couples are the norm and are having children Racial and Ethnic Differences  The 2006 census counted more than 200 ethnic origins  20% reported that their mother tongue was neither French or English English and French Canadians  English-Canadian society has roots in Britain  English Canadians have always seen the family as responsible for its members  Aboriginal families and French-Canadian families usually value ties with extended family members more than English Canadians  Traditional Quebec society emphasized four elements: o The Roman Catholic Church defined family roles and education goals o Rural lifestyle was central o Large families were idealized o French language  English Canadians valued “masculine” qualities  French Canadians perceived as “feminine” – religious, elegant, and civilized  During the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s education replaces religion, modern industrial economy replaced the rural lifestyle, large families lost their prestige with contraceptives  French language made central to Quebec Aboriginal Peoples  Aboriginal families displayed two types of societies, either on clans or on small migratory hunting groups  Clan lineages (Iroquoian and Pacific-coast societies) held rights to specific tracts of land and controlled specific trading routes  Conflicts were settled though feasts or potlatches  Migratory hunting groups (the Inuit, northern Ojibway, and Swampy cree) consisted of related hunters and their wives, children, parents, and grandparents  Plains buffalo hunting-societies resembled both the clan and migratory groups  Missionaries and government officials saw aboriginal customs as backwards and they tried to wipe them out  Residential schools – children were isolated, Christianized, experienced abuse  The Aboriginal population has been growing six times faster than the Canadian population  More limited than those of the general population but this is deceasing due to their communities becoming more diverse so there is more variety in levels of education and income Patterns of Immigration to Canada The Desire to Retain Canada’s “British” Character  For many years both federal and provincial governments placed many barriers to the immigration of non-whites, of certain religious groups, and others regarded as hard to assimilate into British-based culture  Chinese brought over to mine, work on the railways and were then denied the right to vote, enter certain professions, or reside in a provincial home for the aged and infirm  Head tax to discourage Chinese immigrants  1923 – Chinese Exclusion Act – made it nearly impossible for Chinese to enter until its repeal in 1947  The federal g  Government ruled that immigrant had to come from their lands of origin in a continuous journey  Blacks originally came as slaves, some as black Loyalists  KKK recruited members from Canada – against Jews, Catholics, and French Canadi
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