Textbook Notes (368,326)
Canada (161,799)
FRHD 1020 (198)
N/ A (1)
Chapter 9

The Family Dynamic-chapter 9.odt

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1020
N/ A

Ch. 9: The Lone-Parent Family- The Future Majority? Stigmas attached to single parents: • broken, incomplete, atypical • single mothers face blame for “damaging” their children and tend to be seen as the cause for their own poverty • innocent victims are not criticized as much (“innocent” may be a widow etc) as women who have left their husbands • communities that were more tolerant of single parents were found to have a higher instance of children born out of marriage The Rise of the Single Parent Family • from 1966-1991 there was 269% increase in the number of single parent families in Canada • in the same 25 year span, heterosexual two parent families only rose 147% (Mckie,1993) • 13% of Canadian families were single parent families in 2001, 82% of these families were single mom families • due to the increase in divorce rates, single mothers are gaining more acceptance and are choosing to raise children alone because working mothers are more common and family benefits are available • the driving force is the change from the typical nuclear family to more diverse family types • little data has been reported about Canadian minority groups, most data reflects caucasian families • although the percentage of single parent families in 1931 is only slightly lower than that in 2001 (12% vs 13.5%), the reasons for these numbers is generally different • in 1931, most single parent families were a result of death, in 2001 they were a result of divorce for the most part The Length of Lone-Parenthood • patterns of the length that a person is a single parent for differs depending on the age at which they become a single parent and how • research is based mostly on females, possibly because fewer male headed single families exist or because men are more likely to marry or cohabit and are therefore lone parents for a shorter time period • mothers who have children pre-marriage generally begin parenting youngest and are lone parents for the shortest amount of time and are most likely to marry or become common-law • separated or divorced mothers become single parents later in life, it lasted longer • widows generally become single mothers oldest and remain single parents for the longest and are least likely to remarry • some parents give up custody of their children or their children become independent • widows and never married mothers who have children less than 2 yrs old are more likely than divorced women to enter a union How the Life Cycle Plays a Part • traditionalists believe that being in a couple prior to having children is fundamental to a healthy family ◦ power relations and age differ much more between parent and child than they do between couples usually ◦ the type of nurturance required to raise a child is different than that given to a significant other • teen parents are usually not finished their education and do not yet have careers ◦ older parents are more likely to be able to support their children above the poverty level • some older women give up on finding “Mr. Right” and opt for artificial insemination or simply find a sperm donor to father their child • homemakers may not have the assets to head a family on their own or the skills to acquire a career that would keep their family at the status they were accustomed to • widows have a greater chance of being financially stable than divorced women • the situation is complicated by the age of the child at the time single parenthood begins Economic Survival • in 2000, ~50% of single mom families lived below the poverty line • 52% of single mothers and 81% of single fathers are working • mothers of preschool kids or with 2+ kids were least likely to be employed or serious students • 30% of single moms under age 25 want to stay home with children, 19% are in school, 10% have difficulty finding and paying for childcare • childcare, transportation, physical and emotional disabilities are all barriers to employment • because of commitment constraints (can't work overtime, travel much etc), many single moms find dead-end jobs with low pay and little opportunity for promotion • welfare is usually
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