Health nad Wellness Cardiorespiratory Endurance Chapter 6.d..
Health nad Wellness Cardiorespiratory Endurance Chapter 6.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1100
Theo Selles

Cardiorespiratory Endurance  Most important component of health related fitness is cardioresperatory endurance; except for older adults where muscle strenght is most important  One can get by without high levels of strenght / flexibility but not without good cardioresp system  Aerobic; preventing cardiovascular disease, poor heart has to pump more often just to keep a person alive, more wear and tear than a well conditioned heart; o Strenuous demand on the unconditioned heart may not be able to sustain the strain  Lack of phsyical activity = hypertension, heart disease, chronic low back pain, obesisity, ; hypokinetic diseases; hypo ; low / little and kinetic ; implies motion Basic CardioResp Physiology;  Cardiorespiratory endurance is a measure how the pumonary (lungs), cardiovascular * heart, blood vessels" and muscular systems work together during aerobic activities  As a person breathers, part of oxygen in the air is taken up the alevoli in the lungs, as blood passes through the alveoli, o oxygen is picked up by hemoglobin, and transported in the blood to the heart;  heart then pumps the oxygenated blood through circulatory system to all organs and tissues of the body  Cellular level; oxygen is used to convert food subtrates ( carbs and fats) through aerobic metabolism into adenosine triphosphate; o Which provides energy for physical activity, body functions, maintenance of a constant internal equilibrium o DURING physical exertion , more ATP is needed, cause lungs, heart, blood vessels need more oxygen to deliever to muscle cells to supply the required energy o High level of cardiresp endurance is able to delieve required amount of oxygen to the tissues with relative ease; low level has to work much harder, heart works at a higher rate, less oxygen is delivered to the tissues, consequently individual fatigues faster; o Higher capacity to delieve and utilze oxygen; oxygen uptake or VO2; indicates; more efficient cardio resp system o Measuring oxy uptake ; = evaluate our cardioresp health Aerobics: cardiorespiratory endurance activities that include jogging, swimming, cycling, cross country skiing, water aerobics, rope skipping, aerobics,  intensity of anerobic is so high that oxygen cannot be delivered an utilized to produce energy o Because energy production is limited in the absense of oxygen; these activities can be carried out for short periods only; 2-3mins, higher the intensity of the activity, the shorter the duration o Do not contribute to development of cardio.resp system, only aerobic help increase Benefits of Aerobic Training: 1. Higher maximal oxygen uptake (vo2 max) the amount of oxygen the body is able to use during physical activity increase significantly; allow the individual to exercise longer. More intensely before fatigue; 2. Increase in oxygen carrying capacity of the blood; red blod cell count goes up, which transport oxygen in the body through the use of hemoglobin 3. Decreasing resting heart rate; increase in cardiac muscle strenght a. During resting conditions, heart ejects 5-6 L if blood per minute; this amount referred to cardiac output; meets the bodys energy demands in the resting state Heart responds to training by increasing in strenght/ size as heart gets stronger makes more foceful contractions which helps the heart to eject more blood with each beat; THIS Stroke volume yields a lower heart rate; which allow heart to rest longer between beat 4. Lower heart rate at given workloads; comapred with untrainied individuals, atrained person has a lower heart rate response to a given task because a greater efficiency of the cardio respiratory system 5. Increase in the number / size of mitochondria; all energy needed in the mitochondria; as size / number increase = potetnial to produce energy for muscular work; 6. Increase in number of functional capilaries; capilaries allow for the exhange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and cells' a. More vessels open up, more gas exchange can take place, delaying the onset of fatigure during prolonged exercise b. Increase in capillaries also speeds up the rate at which waste products of cell metabolism can be removed, c. increased capillaries occur in the heart; ehances the oxygen delivery capacity to the heart muscle itself 7. Faster recovery time; fit system is able to more quickly restore any internal equilibrium disrupted during exercise 8. Lower blood pressure and blood lipids;, lower level of fats all from aerboic exercise; 9. Increase in fat burning enzymes ; prominent because fat is lost by burning it in muscles; as the concentration of enxymes increase, so does the ability to burn fat Physical Fitness Assessment;  Educate participants about present fitness standards in comparisons to health / physical fitness standards  Motivate individual to partiicpant in exercise programs  Provide starting point for individualized exercise prescriptions  Evaluate improvements in fitness achieved through exercise programs, make adjusgtment in exercise perscirptions  Monitor changes in fitness throughoug years Responders vs Non Responsders:  Heredity placys role in how each person responds to and imrpoves after beginning an exercise program; o Responders show improvements following exercise o Nonresponders; exhibit small / no improvements at all  Might be due to lower level of strenght of leg msucles; by increaing lower body muscle mass, more muscle tissue becomes available to take up and utilize any delivered oxygen; thus incrasing oxygen consumptions o Principle of Individuality  After mothsns of aerboic training, vo2 max ; increase between 15-20 percent, on the average, but some people can increase by 0% to 50% improvement Assessment of CardioResp Endurance:  Cardioresp endurance, cardioresp fitnes, and aerobic capacity is determined by the maximal amount of oxygen the human body is able to utilize (oxygen uptake; per minute of phsycial actiivty (VO2MAX) o Litres / per min, or ml per kilogram per minutes; most used, it considers toal body mass weight in kilograms; o Less body mass will have higher relative value; indiviating more oxygen is available to each kiogram of body weight; o Higher oxygen consumptions indicates a more efficnet cardio resp system Components of Oxygen Uptake  Oxygen body uses at rest / submaximal (VO2) or maximal (Vo2Max) physical activity is determined by the heart rate, the sroke volume, and the amount of oxygen removed from the vascular system for use by all organs, tissues of the body Heart rate: Normal 40bpm, during resting conditions in trained athletes to 200bpm or higher during maximal exercise  Maximal heart rate; a person can achieve drops by one / per year from age of 12; Stroke Volume; 50ml per peat during resting conditions in untrainted to 200 ml at maximum in nedurance trained athletes  Following endurance; stroke volume increase; due to stronger heart muscle but also increase intotal blood volume, greater filling capacity of the ventricles during the rest phase (diastole) of the heart cycle o As more blood eneters the heart, greater amount can be ejected with each heartbeat (systole) o Amount of Ocygen Removed From Blood; or from vascular system is known as the arterial venous oxygen different;  Actual measurement of stroke volue and AVO diff; is impratical in the fitness setting, VO2 is dtermined through gas (air analysis; person being tested breathes into a metabolic art that measrues the difference in oxygen content between the persons exhaled air and the atompsoher  VO2 max is affected by gnetics, training, gender, age, and body composition; o Only combo of aerboic, and genetic omponent are able to reach an elite level of aerobic capavity; o Vo2 Max is higher in men; greater heomglobal content, lower body fat, and larger heart size in men, ( a learge heart pumps more blood, thus producting a greater stroke volume o Vo2 max decrease 1% after 25, only .5 in physically activity individuals Test to Estimate VO2 max;-  Maximal test; any test that requires the participants all out and nearly all out effort, for submaxmial, physician should be presenting when testing higher risk , asymptomatic individuals or disease people, regardless of the participants current age o Test include, time, equipment and individual physical limitations 2.4 km run test; time the person takes to run / walk 2.4 km courges; maximal oxygen uptake is estimated based on the time the person takes to cover the distance; requries sttop watch, track or premeasured 2.4 km course  not for unconditioned beginners, men over 45, women over 55, without proper medical clearance, symptomatic individuals and those with know diseases or risk factos for coronoary heart disease  6 weeks of aerobics before test for unconditioned 1.6km Test: for individuals who cannot run due to low fitness levels or injures; includes a brisk walk that will elicit an exercise heart tof oal least 120 peats per minute at the end of the test-  Take heart rate by counting pulse;  Maximal oxygen uptake is estimated according to a predict
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