FRHD 2060 definitions.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2060
Scott Maitland

FRHD 2060 exam definitions Chapter 1 Age effects - Reflects the influence of time of time dependent processes on development Ageism - Untrue assumption that chronological age is the main determinant of human characteristics - One age is better than another Apocalyptic demography - Belief that aging population will create inevitable social chaos Biological forces - One of four basic forces of development - Includes all genetic and health related factors Case study - Intensive investigation of individual people Cohort effects - Differences caused by experiences and circumstances unique to the historical time in which on lives Confounding - Any situation in which one cannot determine which of two or more effects is responsible for the behaviours being observed Continuity-discontinuity controversy - The debate over whether a particular a particular developmental phenomenon represents smooth progression over time (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity) Correlation study - Investigation into the strength of association between variable Cross sectional study - Research design in which people of different ages and cohorts are examined at the same period in time Dependant variable - Outcomes measured in an experiment Experiment - Study in which people are randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, - Independent variable manipulated to see effect on dependant variable Independent variable - Variable manipulated in an experiment Life cycle forces - One of four basic forces of development - Differences in how the same event or combination of biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces affect people at different points in their lives Life span perspective - View of the human life span in two parts - Childhood/adolescence and young, middle, late adulthood Longitudinal study - Measures one cohort over two or more times of measurement to examine age changes Nature – nurture controversy - A debate over the relative influence of the genetic and the environment on development Non-normative influences - Random events that are important to people but do not happen to most people Normative age guided influences - Experiences caused by bio, psycho, socio, forces rgar are closely related to a persons age - E.g. puberty, menopause Normative history-guided influences - Events experienced by most people in a culture at the same time Primary aging - The normal, disease free development during adulthood Reliability - The ability of a measure to produce the same value repeatedly when repeated Secondary aging - Developmental changes that are related to disease, environmental, and lifestyle that are not inevitable (e.g. smoking) Self-reports - Peoples answers to questions about a topic of interest Sequential designs - Type of developmental research - Combination of cross sectional and longitudinal Sociocultural forces - One of four basic forces - Interpersonal, societal, cultural and ethnic factor Stability-change controversy - A debate over the degree to which people remain the same over time as opposing to different Systemic observation - A type of measurement involving watching people and recording what they do Tertiary aging - Rapid losses occurring shortly before death - E.g. terminal drop Time of measurement effects - One of 3 effects - Time at which the data was collected Universal versus context specific development controversy - Whether there is a single pathway of development or many Validity - The degree to which an insturments measures what it is supposed to measure Chapter 2 – physical changes Angina pectoris - Painful condition caused by temporary constriction of blood flow to the heart Atherosclerosis - A process by which fat is deposited on the walls of the arteries Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) - And interruption of the blood flow in the brain (a stroke) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - A family of age related lung diseases that block the passage of air and cause abnormalities inside the lungs Climacteric - The transition during which a womens reproductive capactity ends and ovulation stops Congestive heart failure - A condition occurring when cardiac outputand the ability of the heart to contract severly decline making the heart enlarge and increasing blood pressure to the veins and making the body swell Cross linking - Random interaction between proteins that produce molecules that make the body stiffer Emphysema - Sever lung disease that greatly reduces the ability to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen Free radicals - Deleterious and short lived chemicals that cause change in cells that are thought to result in aging Hypertension - Disease in which ones blood pressure is too high Menopause - The cessation of the release of eggs by the ovaries Myocardial infraction - A heart attack Neuritic plaques - A normative change in the brain involving amyloid protein collecting on dying or dead neurons - Large number of these is a defining characteristic of alzheimers Neurofibrillary tangles - A normative age related change in the brain involving the production of new fibresin the neuron - Large number of these is a Defining characteristic of alzheimers Neurons - The basic cells in the brain Osteoarthritis - A form of arthritis marked by gradual onset and progression of pain and swelling - Caused primarily of overuse of a joint Osteoporosis - A degenerative bone disease more common
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