Chapter 3.pdf

15 Pages

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2100
Cynthia Clark

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Week 2 1. Understand the biological, neural, and anatomical factors associated with sexuality and sexual development, specifically sexual differentiation between female and male anatomy 2. Describe key features of internal and external sex organs, and sexual arousal 3. Describe medical and health factors of sexuality throughout the life cycle including puberty, menopause, and STI’s 4. Critically explore the intersections of social, cultural, psychological, and biological factors related to sexuality 5. Identify and compare the various developmental tasks pertaining to sexuality within each phase of the life cycle: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late adulthood 6. Use global and multicultural thinking to evaluate sexual health education through a critical and ethical lens while considering current research findings Chapter 3 Vulva: The external sexual structures Mons Veneris  A mound of fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone (the joining of pelvic bones at the front of the body, below abdomen and above the clitoris). The mons veneris is also known as the mons pubis, or simply the mons  At puberty the mons becomes covered with pubic hair, which is often thick and curly, but varies from person to person in waviness, texture, and colour  It protects her and her partner from pressure afainst the pubic bone caused by thrusting motions  There's ample supply of nerve endings in the mons, so caressing the area can produce pleasureable sexual sensations Labia Majoria  Large folds of skin that run downward from the mons along the side of the vuvla  It is thick and bulging in some women, and thinner, flatter and less noticeable in others  When close together, the labia majora shield the labia minora and the urethral and vaginal openings  The ourter surfaces of the labia majora, next to the thighs, are covered with pubic hair  The inner surgaces of the labia majora are hairless and lighter in colour  They're amply supplied with nerve endings that respond to stimulation and can produce sensations of sexual pleasure Labia Minora  Hairless, light-coloured membranes klocated between the labia majora  They surround the urethral and vaginal openings  The outer surfaces of the labia minora merge with the major lips  Rich in blood vessels and nerve endings, the labia minora are highly sensitive to sexual stimulation  When stimulated, they darken and swell, indicating engorgement with blood Clitoris  A female sex organ consisting of a shaft and a glans, located above the urethral opening. It's extremely sensitive to sexual sensation  Also means “hill” or “slope”  It recieved its name from the manner in which it slopes upward in the shaft and forms a mound of spongy tissue at the glans  It is about 2.5 cm long and 0.5 cm wide  Consists of erectile tissue which contains two spongy masses called corpora cavernosa (cavernous bodies) that become engorged (flled with blood) and erect in response to sexual stimulation  Corpora Cavernosa: Masses of spongy tissue in the clitoral shaft that become engorged with blood and stiffen in response to sexual stimulation  The clitoris shaft is covered by the prepuce ( meaning before a swelling) or hood, a sheath of skin formed by the upper part of the labia  Prepuce: The fold of skin covering the glans of the clitoris (or of the penis in a male)  Sensitive to touch because of its rich supply of nerve endings  Homologous: Similar in structure, developing from the same embryonic tissue  Analogous: Similar in function The Vestibule  refers to the area within the labia minora that contains the opening to the vagina and the urethra  Richly supplied with nerve endings, the vestibule is very sensitive to tactile and other sexual stimulation The Urethral Opening  Connected by the short tube called the urethra to the bladder, where urine collects  Lies behind the clitoral glans and in front of the vaginal opening  Proximity of the urethral opening of the external sex organs may pose hygientic problems for sexually active women  Infectuious microscopic organisms may pass from the male;s sex organs to the female;s urethral opening during sexual intercourse  Manual stimulation of the vulva with dirty hands may also transmit bacteria through the urethral opening to the bladder  Anal intercourse followed by vaginal intercourse may transfer microscopic organisms from the rectum to the bladder and cause infection  Cystitis: An inflammation of the urinary bladder  Clitoridectomy: Surgical removal of the clitoris The Vaginal Opening Introitus  The vaginal opening  Lies behind the smaller urethral opening Hymen  A fold of tissue across the vaginal openning that's usually present at birth and remains at leasy partly intact until a woman engages in sexual intercourse  May remain at last partly intact until a woman engages in coitus  Some females are born with incomplete hymens, however, and other girls hymens are torn during such activities as horseback riding, strenuous exercise, gymnastics and cycling  Perineum: The skin and underlying tissue that lies between the vaginal opening and the anus ◦ Has rich in nerve endings, stimulating this area may heigten sexual arousal  Episiotomy: A surgical incision in the perineum that may be made during childbirth, to protect the vagina from tearing Structure That underlie the External Sex Organs Sphincters: Ring-shaped muscles that surround body openings, which they open or close by expanding or contracting Crura: Anatomic structures resembling legs that attach the clitoris to the pubic bone. The singular is “crus”  Contains corpora cavernosa, which engorge with blood and stiffen during sexual arousal Vestibular Bulbs: Cavernous structures that extend downward along the sides of the introitus and swell during sexual arousal  Blod congests them during sexual arousal, swelling the vulva and lengthening the vagina  this swelling contributes to coital sensations for both partners Bartholin's Glands: Glands that lie just inside the minor lips and secrete fluid just before orgasm  secrete a couple of drops of lubcrication just before orgasm  This lubrication in not essential for coitus  If the glands become infected and clogged, a woman may notice swelling and local irritation  Pubococcygeus Muscles: The muscle that encircles the entrance to the vagina The Internal Female Sex Organs Vagina: The tubular female sex orgaan that contains the penis during sexual intercourse and through which a baby is born  pictured as a canal or barrel, but when at rest, its like a collapsed musuclar tube whose walls touch  Epands in length and width during sexual arousal  Expand to allow insertion of a tampon, as well as passage of a baby's head and shouldgers during childbirth  Vaginal walls have three layers ◦ Inner Lining (vaginal mucosa) can be see by opening the labia minora. It's a mucous membrane similar to the skin that lines the inside of the mouth. It feels fleshy, soft and corrugated. May vary from very dry to very wet ◦ Middle layer is musuclar ◦ Outer (deeper layer) is a fibrous covering that connects the vagina to other pelvic structures  Vaginal walls are rich with blood vessels, but poorly supplied with nerve endings  Entire vaginal barrel is sensitive to pressure, however, which may be experienced as sexually pleasureable The Cervix  The lower end of the uterus Os: The opening in the middle of the cervix Uterus: The hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ in whcih a fertiized ovum implants and develops until birth Radiotherapy: Treatment of a disease by X-rays or by emissions from a radioactive substance Pap Test: Examination of a sample of cervical cells for cervical cancer and other abnormalities. Named after the originator of the technique, Goerge Papnicolaou. The Uterus  is the organ in which a fertilized ovum implats and develops until birth  Usualy slants forward, although about 10% of women have uteruses that tip backward  Expands to house a fetus during pregnancy and shrinks after pregnancy, although not to its original size  Endometrium: The innermost layer of the uterus ◦ Richly supplied with blood vessels and glands  Endometriosis: A condition caused by the growth of endomentrial tissue in the abdominal cavity, or elsewhere outside the uterus, and chracterized by mentrual pain Hysterectomy  Surgical removal of the uterus  May be performed when women evelop cancer of the uterus, ovaries or cervix or have other diseases that cause pain or excessive uterine bleeding  Complete Hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix and uterus  Usually performed to reudce the risk of cancer's spreading throughout the reproductive system  A partial hysterectomy allows the woman to continue to ovulate and fallopian tubes  Sparing the ovaries allows the woman to continue to ovulate and produce adequate quantities of female sex hormones The Fallopian Tubes  Tubes that extend from the upper uterus toward the ovaries, conducting ova to the uterus. Names farer the Italian anatomist Gabriel Fallopius, who is credited with their discovery  The form of sterilization called tubal ligation ties off the fallopian tubes so ova cannot pass through them to become fertilized  Ectopic Pregnancy: A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube ◦ Can eventually burst fallopian tubes, causing hemorrhaging and death ◦ They are not easily recognized, because their symptoms – a missed menstrual period, abdominal pain and irregular bleeding – suggest many conditions The Ovaries  Almond-shaped organs that produce ova and the hormones estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are part of the endocrine system  Estrogen: A generic term for female sex hormones or synthetic compounds that promote the development of female sex characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle  Progesterone: A steroid hormone that stimulates proliferation of the enfometrium and is involved in regulation of the menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the corpus luteum or prepared synthetically  Follicle: A capsule within an ovary, containing an ovum Ovarian Cancer  Women most at risk are those whose blood relatives, espeically first-degree relatives have had ovarian or breast cancer  94% of its victims survive The Female Breasts  Secondary Sex Characteristics: Traits that distinguish women from men but are not directly involved in reproduction  Mammary Glands: Milk-secreting glands  Areola: The dark ring on the breast that encircles the nipple Breast Cancer  Commonly diagnosed cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer-related death  The five-year survival rate drops to about 80% if the cancer hs spread to the surrounding region, and drops further to about 26^ if it has spread to more distant sites Risk Factor  Risk increases with age  genetic factors are involved in breast cancer, among women with family histories of the disease and those who inherit the genetic mutations BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are associated with breast cancer  Key risk is prolonged exposure to estrogen, which stimulates both breast development in young women and proliferation of breast cancer cells  Exposure to estrogen – and therefore the risk of breast cancer – is heightened by early onset of menstruation, late menopause, delayed childbearing Detection and Treatment  Cysts: Saclike structures filled with fluid or diseased material  Benign: Doing little or no harm  Maliagnant: Lethal; causing or likely to cause death  Mammography: A special type of X-ray test that detects cancerous lumps in the breast Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle  Hypothalamus: A bundle of neural cell bodies involved in regulating body temperature, motivation and emotion. Its located near the centre of the brain  Pituitary Gland: The gland that secretes growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and other horomones  Hormone: A substance secreted by an endoctrine gland to regulate various body functions  Testes: The male gonads  Testosterone: The male sex hormone that fosters development of male characteristics and is connected with the sex drive Phases of the Menstrual Cycle Proliferative Phase  The first phrase of the menstrual cycle, which begins with the end of menstruation and lasts about 9 or 10 days. During this phase, the endometrium proliferates  Also known as the pre-ovulatory or follicular phae, because its when certain ovarian follicles mature and the ovaries prepare for ovluation The Ovulatory Phase  When the follicle ruptures and releases a mature ovum  Two ova mature and are relased during ovulation and if both are fertilized, fraternal twins develop  Identical twins develop when one fertilized ovum divides into two separate zygote  Ovulation is set into motion when estrogen production reaches a cirtical level  Woman's basal body temperature measured by oral or rectal thermometer, dips slightly at ovulation and rises by about 0.5 C The Secretory Phase  Also referred as luteal phase  Levels of the progesterone and estrogen peak at around the 20 or 21 day of an average cycle  These hormones cause the glands in the endometrium to secrete nutrients that will sustain a fertilized ovum implanted in the uterine wall  If implantation does not occur, the corpus luteum decomposes. After its decomposition, levels of estrogen and progesterone fall precipitously The Menstrual Phase  The uterine lining is sloughed off into the menstrual flow  Occurs when estrogen and progesterone levels decline to the point where they can no longer sustain the uterine lining and the lining disintegrates  Menstruation itself is the passing of the lining through the cervix and vagina Menopause  The cessation of menstruation  Commonly occurs between the ages of 47 and 50 and lasts for about two years, though it may begin at any time between ages of 35 and 60  Preimenopause: The years leading up to menopause, between the beginning of the climacteric and the cessation of menstruation ◦ Refers to the beginning of menopause and is usually chracterized by 3 to 11 months of amenorrhea or irregular periods  Climacteric: A long-term process, including menopause that invovles the gradual decline in the reproductive capcity of the ovaries ◦ Generally lasts for about 15 years, from ages 45 to 60 or so. ◦ Beginning around the age of 35, many women's menstrual cycles shorten from an average of 28 days to about 25 days by age 40, and to about 23 days by their mid- forties  In menopause, the pituritary gland continues to pour normal levels of FSH and LH into the bloodstream, but for reasons that aren't well understood, the ovaries gradually lose their capacity to respond  No longer ripen egg cells or produce the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)  Post-menopausal replacement of naturally occurring estrogen or estrogen and progesterone with synthetic equivalents  These synthetic hormones are used to offset the loss of their naturally occurring counterparts  HRT may help reduce the hot flushes and other symptoms brought about by hormonal deficiencies during menopause Menstrual Difficulties Dysemenorrhea  Pain or discomfort during menstruation 
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