chapter 12

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Cynthia Clark

Chapter 12 – SexualityAcross the Life Span and Sexual-Health Education Childhood Sexuality Age Common Learning Domains Developmental Outcomes Characteristics and Behaviours 0-2 - Explores own body, - Learns correct names - Develops capacity to trust including genitals for body parts, including caregivers genitals - Develops capacity to - Displays spontaneous, experience sensory (touch) reflexive sexual - Learns to differentiatepleasure response (erection, between male and - Begins to distinguish lubrication) female between males and females - Begins to develop sense of - Enjoy touch from - Learns to experience autonomy caregivers. Enjoys pleasure from touch - Begins first social/ play nudity (cuddling, nonsexual interactions with peers touching) 2-5 - Engages in occasional - Learns basics of - Develops ability to identify masturbation (focused reproduction self as male or female on soothing, not arousal) - Learns basic rules of - Begins to understand basics privacy of human reproduction - Engages in consensual exploration of same- - Learns “your body - Understands concept of aged playmates bodies belongs to you” privacy related to nudity and in curiosity-focused sexuality manner - Learns difference between appropriate and - Enjoys nudity inappropriate touching (good touch versus bad - Uses slang terms for touch) bodily functions 5-8 - Enagaes in curiosity- -Acquires basic - Has well established sense based body exploration understanding of human of gender identity (male or with same-sex and reproduction female) opposite-sex playmates -Acquires preparatory - May show early signs of - Engages in occasional understanding of basic puberty (breast development) masturbation (may physical changes begin to focus on associated with puberty - Understands terminology pleasure) for body parts (penis, vagina) -Acquires - Uses slang words to understanding of basic - Develops basic describe body parts and distinction between understanding of sexual may have crushes hetero & homosexuality orientation 9-12 - May masturbate more -Acquires reasonably - Exhibits physical and regularly, with a sexual complete knowledge of psychological changes focus physical and associated with puberty psychological aspects of - Experiences more puberty - Understands basic rights frequent crushes, which and responsibilities related to can develop into -Acquires basic sexuality and relationships relationships knowledge of concepts of delaying first - May begin partnered intercourse and sexual activity (though contraception/safer sex its rare in this age group) - Learns social skills related to rights and - Becomes more curious responsiblities in about sexuality relationships - Becomes interested in - Learns media literacy sexually orientated skills, to understand and media evaluate sexual imagery and messages Adolescent Sexuality • Four major developmental tasks of adolescent sexuality: ◦ Adapt to the physical and emotional changes of puberty ◦ Accept yourself as a sexual being ◦ Explore romantic and sexual relationships ◦ Learn to protect your sexual health Puberty • The stage of development when reproduction first becomes possible. Puberty begins witht eh appearance of secondary sex characteristics and ends when the long bones make no further gains in length • Involves changes in primary sex characteristics: ◦ Physical characteristics that differentiate males and females and are directly involved in reproduction. These are the sex organs • Ross Frisch has presented evidence that a particular ratio of fat to lean mass is usually necessary for both menarche and regular ovulatory cycles • Critical Fat Hypothesis: The view that a girl must reach a certain body weight to trigger pubertal changes such as menarche ◦ body fat plays a key role because fat cells secrete a chemical called leptin, which signals the body to secreete hormones that increase estrogen levels in the body ◦ Higher body weight is associated with earlier menarche ◦ Menarche comes later to athletes, who have lower percentages of body fat ◦ Girls expeirence menarche between ages 10 and 18 Female Changes • Menarche: The onset of menstruation; first mensruation • Between 8 and 14 years of age, FSH relaeased by the pituitary gland causes the ovaries to begin to secrete estrogen • Estrogen has several major effects • It stimulates the growth of breast tissues perhaps as early as age 8 or 9 • Estrogen promotes grwoth of the uterus, thickening of the vaginal lining and growth of fatty and suppoting tissue in the hips and buttocks • Small amounts of androgens produced by the female's adrenal glands, along with estrogen, stimulate development of pubic and underarm haird, begining at about age 11 • Estrogen stimulates growth of the vagina, uterus, and labia during puberty • Anovulatory: Without ovulation Males Changes • At puberty, the hypothalamus signals the pituitary to increase production of FSH and LH • Hormones stimulate the testes to increase their output of testosterone, which in turn prompts growth of the testes, scrotum and penis • Testosterone also fosters differentation of secondary male characteristics – growth of facial, body and pubic hair and deepening of the voice • The penis widens and lengthens and pubic hair appears • Nocturnal Emission: Involuntary ejaculation of seminal fluid while asleep • At age 14 to 15, the voice deepens as the larynx grows and the vocal cords lengthen • Larynx: Astructure of muscle and cartilage that lies at the upper end of the trachea and contains the vocal cords. It is also called the voice box Romantic and Sexual Relationships • Students who were sexually active reported an average age of 17 for first intercourse • Most (84%) said they were in romantic relationships when they had their first intercourse experience • Fewer – 63% of females and 43% of males siad they were in love with their partners at the time • Of the males, 62% reported that their first sexual intercourses were physically satisfying, and 42% said they were emotionally satisfying • Astudy of university students with an average age of 18.5 found that about 90% of both males and females thought they'd had fewer sex partners than their classmates Adolescent Sexual Behaviour Masturbation • Major sexual outlet during adolescence • No links between adolescent masturbation and sexual adjustment in adulthood Sexual Touching (petting) • Percentage that experience “touching below the waist” increased with age, until about three- quarters had done so by grade 11 Oral Sex • Found that less than one-third of grade nine males (32%) and females (28%) reported that they'd ever had oral sex, compared to about one-half of grade 11 males (53%) and females (52%) Intercourse • One-quarter of the boys and girls in grade 10 reported having experienced sexual intercourse • Data suggest that about two-thirds of Canadians have sexual intercourse by the time they're 19 Early Age at First Intercourse • Drinking alcohol at age 12 or 13 is associated with early intercourse for girls, but not for boys • Girls with weak self-concepts are more likely to have early intercourse, whereas boys with strong self-concepts are more likel to engage in early intercourse • Physical characteristics also play a stronger role with girls • Those who reach puberty at a young age and are not overweight are more likely to have early intercourse than those who reach puberty later or are overweight Casual Sex • Grade 11 boys (66%) and girls (32%) approved of casual sex • Girls who displayed greater self-confidence and whose parents were from higher social classes were less likely to be judged • Only 13% of the female students said they engaged in sexual intercourse with someone they met the same day or night, but three times as many (36%) said they had sexual intercourse with someone they weren't in a committed relationship with • 76% of the women who experienced casual sex thought casual sex was enjoyable, compared with 57% of the women who had not experienced casual sex Attidues about Premartial Sex • 82% approve of premarital sex if the two people love each other, and more than half 58% approve if the two people like each other • Fewer than 49% of youth who attend religious services on a weekly basis approve of premartial sex • Only 11% of the girls and 5% of the boys in grade 9 said wanting to be a virgin at marriage Obstacles Faced By Sexual-Minority Youth • Self-acceptance as sexual beings is more challenging for sexual-minority youth because they have to grow up in a soceity that doesn't fully accept their sexual orientation Protecting Sexual Health inAdolescence • The pregnancy rate among 15-19 year old females declined from 47.6 per 1000 in 1995 to 29.2 per 1000 in 2005 • Condom use increased from 72% in 2003 to 75% in 2005 • 15-17 years - 81% used condoms • 18-19 years – 70% used condoms Adult Sexuality Passion • romantic relationships usually begin with some element of physical and emotional attraction • First episodes of sexual interaction tend to be fuelld by passion and spontaneous sexual arousal • Physical attraction is often the spark that initally brings a couple together • The inital passionate infatuation inevitably wanes, and broader aspects of compatibility become more important • Understanding other factors beyond passion will determine the sustainability of sexual or romantic relationships is therefore a necessar
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