Chapter 15

7 Pages

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2100
Cynthia Clark

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Unit 11: Sexual Variation Chapter 15 1. Define common paraphilias including fetishism, exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism, sadism, frotteurism, zoophilia, and necrophilia, as well as the requirements for a psychiatric diagnosis Paraphilia -Adiagnostic category used by theAmerican PsychiatricAssociation to describe an atypical pattern of sexual arousal or behaviour that becomes problematic in the eyes of the individual or of society - Urges are recurrent and are either acted on or are distressing to the individual who experiences them - Clinicians consider paraphilias to be mental disorders - Milder forms of these behaviours may be practiced by individuals and not considered harmful - Involve sexual arousal in response to unusual stimuli such as children or other non-consenting individuals, or pain or humiliation - Psychiatric diagnosis requires that the person act on the urges in socially unacceptable or harmful ways or be distinctly distressed by them - Perceived as persistent, demanding, compulsive, uncontrollable - Vary in severity - Often replayed in fantasy - Can be harmless and victimless - Some believe some paraphilias should not be considered sexual disorders because sexual behaviours and interests are strongly influence by culture, what is considered normal and healthy is influenced by political values, and people can learn to express interests in healthier ways. New concept proposed: sexual-interest disorder (SID) with key component distress or dysfunction. Fetishism -Aparaphilia in which an inanimate object, such as an article of clothing or idems make out of rubber, leather, or silk, elicits sexual arousal - Leather boots and high-heeled shoes are popular - May act on urges which masturbating - Most are harmless and private Transvestism -Aparaphilia in which a person repeatedly cross-dresses to achieve sexual arousal or gratification or is troubled with persistent, recurrent urges to cross-dress - Clothing or object is only sexually alluring when wearing it - Transvestites are mostly male (gay or hetero) - Different thank transsexualism - Origins are largely unknown but had been associated with separation from parents, same-sex experiences, use of pornography, high rates of masturbation, and other paraphilias Exhibitionism -Aparaphilia characterized by persistent, powerful urges and sexual fantasies that involve exposing one’s genitals to unsuspecting strangers - The exhibitionist achieves sexual arousal or gratification from this behaviour - Typical exhibitionist is thought to be male, young, lonely or in an unhappy male-female relationship, and sexually repressed. Many are single and find it hard to relate to women. May attempt to assert masculinity or express hostility towards women. - Urge to “flash” usually occurs between the ages of 13 and 16 Obscene Telephone Calling (Telephone Scatologia) -Aparaphilia characterized by the making of obscene telephone calls - Usually males who become sexually aroused by shocking their victims - Women who do so are usually motivated by rage rather than sexual excitement - Typical obscene phone caller is a socially inadequate heterosexual male who has difficulty forming relationships with women Responding to Exhibitionists and Obscene Phone Callers - Exhibitionist: Stay calm, do not display shock or fear. Could advice individual to seek professional help. Report incident to the police. - Phone caller: Remain calm, do not reveal shock or fright. Hang up, or advise caller to seek professional help. Request and unlisted number or call trace. Voyeurism -Aparaphilia characterized by strong, repetitive urges and sexual fantasies related to observing unsuspecting strangers who are naked, disrobing, or engaged in sexual relations. - Voyeur becomes aroused by watching and does not seek to participate - More common among men - Usually begins before age 15 - May include masturbation during or after Sexual Masochism -Aparaphilia characterized by the desire or need for pain or humiliation to enhance sexual arousal and attain gratification - Most common paraphilia among women -Association of sexual arousal with mildly painful stimuli is quite common - When desire for pain for the purpose of sexual arousal overshadows other sources of sexual stimulation, or when masochistic experience causes physical of psychological harm it is considered “abnormal”. Sexual Masochist -Aperson who becomes sexually aroused by experiencing pain or humiliation experiences by a sexual partner -May act on or be distressed by persistent urges and sexual fantasies involving the desire to be restrained. Spanked, whipped, flogged, humiliated, or made to suffer in some way in order to achieve sexual excitement. - Pain must be a part of an elaborate sexual fantasy Sexual Sadism -Aparaphilia characterized by the desire to inflict pain or humiliation on others to enhance sexual arousal and attain gratification - Sexual sadists act on urges or finds them distressing - Some hurt or humiliate willing partners, a small minority stalk and attach non-consenting victims. Sado-Masochism (S&M) -Amutually gratifying sexual interaction between consenting partners, in which sexual arousal is associated with inflicting and receiving pain or humiliation - Involved power exchange between consenting partners - Variation is bondage and discipline which involves restraining and punishing a submissive partners physically or verbally - The term ‘BDSM’is often used instead - Occasional S&M is quite common in the general population - becomes pathological when the fantasies are acted on in ways that become destructive, dangerous, or distressing to either partner - Some S&M practices can be dangerous - Sexual sadists and masochists form a subculture to inflict and receive pain and humiliation during sexual activity - Often involves highly elaborate rituals - Psychological pain is as common as physical pain - Participation varies in terms of gender, gender identity and sexual orientation - Negative stereotype that people who engage in S&M behaviours are mentally disturbed (research does not support this) - No evidence that people involved in S&M have greater difficulty than others in establishing intimate relationships - No evidence that engaging in S&M is distressing or dysfunctional Frotteurism -Aparaphilia characterized by recurrent, powerful sexual urges and fantasies that involve rubbing against or touching a non-consensual person - has been reported exclusively among males - mostly takes place in crowded places - man fantasies about consenting relationship - often fleeting so goes unnoticed - many men have difficulty forming relationships with women and are handicapped by fears of rejection Zoophilia -Aparaphilia involving persistent or repeated sexual urges and fantasies that involve sexual contact with animals. -Actual contact with an animal is known as bestiality Necrophilia -Aparaphilia characterized by a desire for sexual activity with corpses. - Some necrophiliacs get jobs where they can access corpses - Primarily motivation appears to be desire to completely possess an unresisting and non-rejecting partner. 2. Describe what many different theorie
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