Chapter 3

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Distance Ed

Chapter 3Anatomy and Physiology External Sex OrgansThe vulva consists of the mons veneris the labia majora and minora major and minor lipsthe clitoris and the vaginal openingThe mons veneris consists of fatty tissue that covers the joint of the pubic bones in front of the body below the abdomen and above the clitorisThe labia majora are large folds of skin that run downward from the mons along the sides of the vulvasome have have thick and bulging others have thinner and flatter ones outer surface is covered with pubic hair and is dark in colour where as the inner surface is hairless and lighter The labia minora are two hairless light coloured membranes between the majorathe outer surface merges with the majora and at the top they join at the hood of the clitoriswhen stimulated they darken and swell engorge with bloodThe clitoris receives its name from the manner in which it slopes upward in the shaft and forms a mound of spongy tissue at the glandsabout 1 inch long and 5 cm wideclitoral shaft includes erectile tissue that contains corpora cavernosa that fill with blood and become erect in response to sexual stimulation the hood covers the clitoral shaft it is above the urethra openingthe clitoris and penis develop from the same embryonic tissue making them homologous similar in structure but they are not analogous similar in functionThe vestibule is in the labia minora and contains the openings to the vagina and urethraThe urethral opening is connected to the urethra a tube that goes to the bladdercystitis is a bladder inflammation that may stem from any of these sources symptoms are burning and frequent urination blood or pus ache above pubic bone can lead to serious kidney infectionsOne does not see the entire vagina but rather the vaginal opening or introitusits shape resembles the hymen shape a fold of tissue across the vaginal opening that is present at birthperineum is skin in between vaginal opening and anus an episiotomy is when it is cut during childbirthSphincters are ring shaped muscles that constrict bodily openings like the vaginal and analThe crura are wingshaped leglike structures that attach the clitoris to the pubic bone beneathThe vestibular bulbs are attached to the clitoris at the top and extend downward along the sides of the vaginal openingnBartholins glands lie just inside the minor lips on each side of the vaginal openingthey secrete a couple of drops of lubrication just before orgasm Internal Sex OrgansThe vagina extends back and upward from the vaginal openingVagina walls have 3 layersthe inner lining or vaginal mucosa is made visible by opening the minora the middle layer is muscular and the outer layer is a fibrous covering that connects the vagina to the other pelvic structuresthe vaginal walls secrete substances that help maintain the vaginas normal aciditywomen who frequently douche or use feminine sprays may remove or mask substances that may arouse sex partners
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