Chapter 12 – FRHD Sexuality Across the Life Cycle.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Cindy Clarke

1 Chapter 12 Sexuality Across the Life Cycle INFANCY (BIRTH 2 YEARS): THE SEARCH FOR THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY Orgasm Boys show behaviours that resemble orgasm as early as five months Baby girls as early as four months Ejaculation occurs only after puberty Masturbation Children may start as early as 5 months of age Masturbation to orgasm is rare until the second year Orgasm from masturbation is found frequently among children Genital play with others does not occur until age 2. Lesbian and Gay Parents Lesbian families were formed as a result of the birth mother having had a children in a heterosexual relationship, leaving that relationship, and then living in a lesbian relationship. Children raised in a lesbian families: Have normal gender identities and gender roles Develop normal peer relationships Exhibit normal emotional/behavioural developments Have fewer issues regarding their sexual identity Are no more likely to grow up gay or lesbian than children raised in heterosexual families Children raised in lesbian families are just as well adjusted, of not more so, than those raised in heterosexual families. CHILDREN (3-8 YEARS) Illustrate interest in sexual anatomy and behaviour Often show each other their bodies Male-Male and Female-Female Sexual Behaviour Same-sex play in childhood does not foreshadow adult orientation PREADOLESCENCE (9-13 YEARS) Sexual urges are experienced by many preadolescents but may not merge until adolescence Masturbation is more acceptable or normal for males than females Interest in the other sex among heterosexuals tend to increase gradually as they approach puberty Male-Male and Female-Female Sxual Behaviour 2 Simply exploration Preadolescent experiences with children of the same sex ,ay be more common than heterosexual experiences Limited touching each others genitals or mutual masturbation Same-sex sexual experiences involve single episodes or short-lived relationships and do not always reflect ones sexual orientation Sources of Information About Sex 45% of grade 9 students said that school was their main source of information More girls than boys listed friends and mother as their main sources of sex information More boys than girls said the school and the internet were 5% said medical professionals were their main source hardly any said their fathers of boys said theu could talk openly about sex with their father or mother 37% of girls said they could talk to their mother, 12% of girls said they could tlak to their father Womens magazines were a common source of sexuality information (cosmpolitain) Not considered a sex magazine but rather a womens magazine Information-Motivational Behavioural Skills (IBM) emphasizes the motivation and behavioural skills required by individuals to act in a sexually healthy manner - teachers can browse and download lesson plans for teaching sexual education by grade level and by topic Contraceptives were illegal until 1969 Abstinence-only programs indicate that they do not reduce rates of sexual behaviour Gay-Straight Student Alliance Handbook - primary objective is to assist Canadian educatorsin creating safe, inclusive, and welcoming spaces for LGBT (Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender) youth Challenging Silence, Challenging Censorship discusses practical resources to help educators and decision-makers challenge discrimination and prmotoe positive change for sexual minorities Sexual Values 91% believed that the schools should teach sex education and 70% agreed that scools should teach contraceptive methods Whether to discourage premarital sex? 45% disagreed, 36% agreed, 19% were undecided The strongest predictor to sex education was the mothers attitude toward premarital sex 3 Students should be informed about the differencing values perspectives so that they are better prepared to decide whether sexual ideology that should choose for themselves Training of Sexual Health Professionals A major limit to the effectiveness of sex education programs is the lack of training for teachers School teachers report they have not received training to teach sex education The largest annual conference on human sexuality in Canada is offered by the University of Guelph ADOLESCENCE Puberty: the stage of development during which reproduction first becomes possible. Puberty begins with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and ends when the long bones make no further gains in length Secondary Sex Characteristics: physical characteristics that differentiate males and females and that usually appear at puberty but are not directly involved in reproduction, such as the bodily distribution of hair and fat, the development od muscle mass, and deepening of the voice. Primary Sex Characteristics: physical characteristics that differentiate males nad females and are directly involved in reproduction, such as the sex organs Most major changes occur within three years in girls and within four years in boys Two major principal markers of the reproductive potential are menarche in the girl and the first ejaculation Critical Fat Hypothesis: the view that girls must reach a certain body weight to trigger pubertal changes such as menarche Known for girls who have a lower percentage of body fat menarche come later, such as athletes 47-50 Kg of weight needs ot be reached Pubertal Changes in the Female Menarche: the onset of menstruation; first menstruation. Girls experience menarche between the ages 10 and 18. In the 1890s, Canadian girls typically reached menarche by about 14.8 years. Since then, the afe of menarche declines sharply, probably as a result of improved nutrition and health care. The average age of menarche in Canada is now between 12 and 13. Release of FSH by the pituitary gland causes the ovaries to begin to secrete estrogen. Stimulates the growth of breasts
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