Chapter 13 – Sexual Dysfunctions.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Cindy Clarke

Chapter 13 Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual Dysfunctions: persistent or recurrent difficulties in becoming sexually aroused or reaching orgasm People with sexual dysfunctions may avoid sexual opportunities for fear of failure May experience guilt, shame, frustration, depression, and anxiety Types of Sexual Dysfunctions Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - The DSM groups sexual dysfunctions into 4 categories: 1. Sexual Desire Disorders: lack of interest in sex or aversion to sexual contact 2. Sexual Arousal Disorder: erection in the male and vaginal lubrication and swelling of the external genitalia in the female. Men have difficulty in obtaining or sustaining erections sufficient to engage in sexual intercourse. Women typically involve insufficient lubrication. 3. Orgasmic Disorders: difficulty reaching orgasm or reach orgasm more quickly than they would like. Women are more likely to encounter difficulties reaching orgasm. Men are more likely to reach orgasm too quickly. 4. Sexual Pain Disorder: Both men and women may experience dyparunia. Women may experience Vaginismus. Dypareunia: a sexual dysfunction characterized by persistent or recurrent pain during sexual intercourse. Vaginismus: a sexual dysfunction characterized by involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the vaginal barrel, preventing penile penetration or rendering penetration painful Sexual dysfunctions are classified as lifelong or acquired acquired dysfunction follow a period of normal functioning Dysfunctions are classified by two types: 1. Generalized occur in all situations 2. Situational affect sexual functioning only in some situations Sexual Desire Disorders Lack of sexual desire or aversion to genital sexual activity Hypoactive sexual desire disorder More common among women than men Lack of sexual desire does not imply that a person is unable to get an erection, lubricate adequately, or reach orgasm Some can become sexually aroused and reach orgasm when stimulated adequately Appreciate the affection and closeness of physical intimacy but have no interest in genital stimulation Most commonly diagnosedsexual dysfunction No standard level of sexual desire, and lack of desire is usually considered a problem when couples recognize that their level of sexual interest has gotten so low that little remains Sexual Aversion Disorder Find sex disgusting or aversive and avoid genital contact A history of trauma, such as rape of childhood sexual abuse or incest, often figure prominently in cases of sexual aversion, especially in women Male Erectile Disorder Male Erectile Disorder: persistent difficulty getting or maintaining an erection sufficient to allow the man to engage in or complete sexual intercourse. Also termed erectile dysfunction. Failure is limited to sexual activity with partners, or with some partners and not others - situational Generalized is rare Incidence of erectile disorder increases with age although there is disagreement as to how many men are affected Fatigue, alcohol, anxiety over impressing a new partner, and other actors may account for a transient episode Performance Anxiety: anxiety concerning ones ability to perform behaviours, especially behaviours that may be evaluated by other people A man with erectile problems may try to will an erection, which can compound the problem each failure may further demoralize and defeat him Performance anxiety is a prominent cause of erectile disorder Depression, lack of self-esteem, and problems in the relationship are factors Mens sexual arousal is also complex and there is considerable variation among men regarding what they will find sexually arousing Older men in the study reported that emotional connection with their partner was now more important that physical attractiveness in their sexual arousal Some men reported that if a women had low self-esteem they were less likely to be aroused by her even if she was physically attractive Female Sexual Arousal Disorder Experience little or no subjective arousal or sexual excitement Categorized in two groups: 1. No subjective arousal and do not feel any genital response 2. Women who are aware their genitals physically responding to stimulation yet feel no subjective arousal Minority of women can become aroused by many different kinds of stimuli but do not find stimulation of their genitals to be arousing May have physical causes an evaluation by a medical specialist is recommended Any neurological, vascular, or hormonal problem that interferes with the lubrication or swelling response of the vagina to sexual stimulation may contribute to female sexual arousal disorder Diabetes mellitus may lead to diminished sexual excitement in women because of the degeneration of the nerves servicing the clitoris and the blood vessel damage it causes Reduced estrogen production can also result in vaginal dryness Female sexual arousal disorder more commonly has psychological causes Women harbour deep-seated anger and resentment toward their partners Sexual trauma is implicated Survivors of sexual abuse often find it difficult to respond sexually to their partners Childhood sexual abuse is especially prevalent in cases of female sexual arousal disorder Feelings of helplessness, anger, or guilt or even flashbacks of the abuse may surface when beginning sexual activity Other psychological causes include anxiety or guilt about sex and ineffective stimulation by the partner Orgasmic Disorders Orgasimic disorders include: 1. Female orgasmic disorder 2. Male orgasmic disorder 3. Premature or rapid ejaculation In female or male orgasmic disorder, the woman or man is persistently delayed in reaching orgasm or does not reach orgasm at all, despite achieving sexual stimulation that would normally be of sufficient intensity to result in orgasm More common among women Sometimes a person can reach orgasm without difficulty while engaging in sexual relations with one partner but not the other Female Orgasmic Disorder Women with the female orgasmic disorder are unable to reach orgasm or havie difficulty reaching orgasm following what would usually be an adequate amount of sexual stimulation Anorgasmic: never having reached orgasm (preorgasmic) A woman who reaches orgasm through masturbation or oral sex may not necessarily reach orgasm dependably during coitus with her partner Male Orgasmic Disorder
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