Chapter 5 – Gender Identity and Gender Roles.docx

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Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2100
Professor
Cindy Clarke

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Chapter 5 Gender Identity and Gender Roles Gender: the psychological state of being female or male, as influenced by cultural concepts of gender-appropriate behaviour; compare and contrast the concept f gender with anatomic sex, which is based on the physical differences between females and males Gender roles the clusters of behaviour that are deemed masculine or feminine in a particular culture Gender Typing: the process by which children acquire behaviour that is deemed appropriate to their sex Prenatal Sex Differentiation Gender Differentiation: the process by which males and females develop distinct reproductive anatomy Chromosomes: one of the rodlike structures found in the nucleus of every living cell that carries the genetic code in the form of genes When a sperm fertilizes an ovum, 23 chromosomes from the male parent normally combine with 23 chromosomes from the female parent Zygote: a fertilized ovum (egg cell) 23 pair is the sex chromosome An ovum carries an X sex chromosome, but a sperm carries either an X or a Y Female XX Male XY After fertilization: 3 weeks heart begins to drive blood through the embryonic bloodstream 5 to 6 weeks the embryo is 0.5 to 1 cm lone, primitive gonads, ducts, and external genitals whose gender cannot be distinguished visually has formed 2 sets of primitive duct strutures, the Mullerian (female) ducts and the Wolffian (male) ducts first six weeks or so of prental development, embryonic structures of both genders develop along similar lines and resemble primitive female structures 7 week after conception, the genetic code begins to assert itself Y sex chromosome causes the testes to begin to differentiate Ovaries begin to differentiate if Y chromosome is absent Those rare individuals who have only one X also become females, because they lack the Y Ovaries begin to form 11 to 12 weeks Embryo: the stage of prenatal development that begins with implantation of a fertilized ovum in the uterus and concludes with development of the major organ systems at about two months after conception The Role of Sex Hormones in Sexual Differentiation Androgens: Males sex hormones Once genes have done their work and testes develop, they begin to produce androgens Testosterone: the males sex hormone that fosters the development of male sex characteristics and is connected with sex drive Each Wolfian duct develops into an epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle th External genitals, including the penis, begin to take shape at about the 8 week of development under the influence of another androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) Prevents the Mullerian ducts from developing into the female duct system Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) The Mullerian ducts evolve into fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the upper 2/3 of the vagina These developments occur even in the absence of female sex hormones If a fetus with an XY sex chromosomal structure failed to produce testosterone, it would develop female sexual organs Descent of the Testes and the Ovaries The testes and ovaries develop from the slender structures high in the abdominal cavty At 10 weeks after conception they have descended so that they are almost even with the upper edge of the pelvis Ovaries remain there and later they rotate and descend farther to their adult position in the pelvis About 4 months, the testes normally descend into the scrotal sac through the inguinal canal Inguinal Canal: a fetal canal that connects the scrotum and the testes, allowing the latter to descend Cryptorchidism: the condition defined by undescended testes Usually treated through surgery or hormonal therapy Higher risk for cancer of the testes Sperm production is also impaired because the undescended tests are subjected to a higher-than-optimal body temperature, causing sterility Sex Chromosomal AbnormalitiesKleinfelter Syndrome: a sex chromosomal disorder caused by an extra X sex chromosome 1 in 500 Men with this pattern fail to develop appropriate sexondary sex characteristics Have enlarged breasts and poor muscular development, and because they fail to produce sperm, thet are infertile Turner Syndrome: a sex chromosomal disorder caused by loss of some X chromosomal material 1 in 2500 females May not naturally undergo puberty, so hormone treatments are usually begun when pubertal changes would start to spur the growth of secondary sex characteristics The brain: Testosterone causes cells in the hypothalamus of male fetuses to become insensitive the female sex hormone estrogen In the absence of testosterone, as in female fetuses, the hypothalamus does develop sensitivity to estrogen Sensitivity to estrogen is important in the regulation of the menstrual cycle The hypothalamus detects low levels of es
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