Chapter 11 – Contraception and Abortion.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Cindy Clarke

Chapter 11 – Contraception and Abortion Condom: a sheath made of animal membrane or latex that covers the penis during coitus and serves as a barrier to sperm following ejaculation  Most common contraceptive methods used at last intercourse were condoms and birth-control pills  Withdrawal was the third most common method  As teenagers get older and form longer-term relationships, they switch from using condoms to using the pill Methods of Contrception Oral Contraceptive: a contraceptive, consisting of sex hormones, that is taken by mouth Combination Pill: a birth control pill that contains synthetic estrogen and progesterone  Multiphasic pills vary the dosage of these hormones across the menstrual cycle to reduce the overall dosages to which the woman is exposed and possible side effects Minipill: a birth-control pill that contains synthetic progesterone but no estrogen  The combination pill fools the brain into acting as through the woman is already pregnant, so that no additional ova mature or are released  Since ovulation does not take place, the woman cannot get pregnant  The combination pill is taken for 21 days of the typical 28 day cycle  The sudden drop in hormone levels causes the endometrium to disintegrate and menstruation to follow three or four days after the last pill has been taken  Perfect use shows only a 0.5% failure rate  Has healthful side effects – reduce the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, benign ovarian cysts, and fibrocystic (benign) breast growths  The pill may also be helpful in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia and facial acne  No protection against STIs  Reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics used to treat STIs  Potential side effects and possible health risks – hypertension, diabetes, migraine headaches, fibrocystic breast tissue, uterine fibroids, and elevated cholesterol level  The estrogen in combination pills may produce side effects such as nausea and vomiting, fluid retention, weight gain, increased vaginal discharge, headaches, tenderness in the breasts, and dizziness  Many women experience hormone withdrawal symptoms during periods when they do not take the pill – results in headaches, pelvic pain, bloating, and breast tenderness  Pill is safe for most women who do not smoke and are younger than 35, pill users may have a slightly higher chance than nonusers of developing blood clots in the veins and lungs, having a stroke, or having a heart attack  Some users report depression or irritability  Irregular bleeding, or so-called breakthrough bleeding, between menstrual periods is common side-effect of the minipill Emergency Contraceptive  Morning after pill – taken after unprotected sex or when contraception fails  Plan B prevents pregnancy by preventing the joining of sperm and egg and by preventing a fertilized egg from attaching to the uterine wall  Effective when taken within 72 hours, sometimes even within 120 hours  Nausea is a common side effect that usually passes after a day or two Contraceptive Patch  Contains a week’s worth of hormones and releases them gradually into the bloodstream  Worn weeklt for three weeks and the fourth week is patch free to allow for menstrual bleeding Vaginal Ring  Delivers hormones thorugh the skin  Shaped like a diaphragm, the ring contains a combination of estrogen and progestin  Worn for 3 consecutive weeks, ring free week for menstruation Injectable contraception – Depo-Provera is an injectable hormone solution available by prescription  Once every 12 weeks Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): a small object that is inserted into the uterus and left in place to prevent contraception Diaphragm: a shallow rubber cup or dome, fitted to the contour of a woman’s vagina, that is coated with a spermicide and inserted prior to coitus to prevent conception  High pregnancy rate Cervical Cap  A some-shaped rubber cup  Fitted by a health professional  Intended to be used with spermicide  Left in place for at least 8 hours after intercourse  Provides continuous protection for upwards of 48 hours after intercourse  Failure rate is typically high  Some women find the cap uncomfortable  Side effects include UTI and allergic reactions to spermicide or rubber Spermicides  Coat the cervical opening, bloking the passage of sperm and killing sperm by chemical action  Different forms including jellies and creams, suppositories, and aerosol foam  Left in place in the vagina (no douching) for at least 6 to 8 hours after coitus  Used no more than 60 minutes preceding coitus to provide maximum effectiveness  Occasionally cause vaginal or penile irritation Contraceptive Sponge  Sponge can be inserted into the vagina several hours before coitus  Provides 12-hour protection, and sexual intercourse can be repeated during this time  About 1 in 20 users (male and female) is mildly irritated by the spermicide Male Condom  Some condoms are made of latex rubber and others are made of pulyurethane  Thinner, more expensive condoms (“skins”) are made from the intestinal membranes of lambs  Allow greater sexual sensation but do not protect so well against STIs  Some people habe allergic reactions to the spermicides with which some lubricated condoms are coated or that the woman may apply  Major disadvantage of the condom is that it may render sex less spontaneous  May also lessen sexual sensations  Some men experience erectile difficulties when using a condom  Some males take Viagra as a mean of overcoming this problem Female Condom  Consists of a polyurethane (plastic) sheath that is used to line the vagina during intercourse  Held in place at each end by a flexible plastic ring  Allows the penis to move freely within the vagina during coitus  Can be inserted as much as 8 hours before intercourse but should be removed immediately afterward  A new one must be used for each act of intercourse  Less effective than the male latex condom  Female condom is bulky and difficult to insert  Costs several times as much as the male condom Douching Douching: to rinse or wash the vaginal canal by inserting a liquid and allowing it to drain out  Often use syringes to flush the vagina with water or a spermicidal agent  Regular douching may also alter the natural chemistry of the vagina, increasing the risk of vaginal infection  Douching is a “non-method” of contraception Withdrawal  First-year failure rate among typical users of about 20% A few reasons for this failure:  Man may not withdraw in time  Active sperm may also be present in the pre-ejaculatory secretions of fluid from the Cowper’s glands, a discharge the man is usually unaware of and cannot control Fertility Awareness Methods  “Rhythm methods” – rely on awareness of the fertile segments of the woman’s menstrual cycle  Natural birth control and natural family planning also refer to theses methods  Coitus is avoided on days when conception is most likely  Acceptable to the Roman Catholic Church Calendar Method Calendar Method: a fertility awareness method of contraception that relies on prediction of ovulation by tracking menstrual cycles, typically for a 10 to 12 month period, and assuming that ovulation occurs 14 days before menstruation  Couple abstains from intercourse during the period that begins three days
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