Chapter 14 – Sexually Transmitted Infections.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Cindy Clarke

Chapter 14 Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): infections that are communicated through sexual contact. Some may be transmitted through other ways. Bacterial Infections Bacteria: (bacterium) a class of one-celled micro-organisms that have no chlorophyll and can give rise to many illnesses Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis Chlamydia A parasitic organism that can survive only within cells Different types of infection including: nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men and women, epididymitis in men, and cervicitis, endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women Transmitted through sexual intercourse vaginal or anal Also may cause an eye infection Oral sex with an infected partner can infect the throat Symptoms that are similar to, but milder than, those of gonorrhea NGU may give rise to a thin, whitish discharge from the penis and some burning or other pain during urination May have soreness in the scrotum and feelings of heaviness in the testes Women may experience burning when they urinate, genital irritation, and a mid (vaginal) discharge Likely to have pelvic pain and irregular menstrual cycles Cervix may look swollen and inflamed As many as 50% of men and 70% of women show no symptoms Untreated Chlamydia infection can spread throughout the reproductive system, leading to PID and to scarring of the fallopian tubes, resulting in infertility Chlamydia infections can also damage the internal reproductive organs of men Clap frequently occur together with other STIs, most often gonorrhea In women, tests analyze cervical and urethral smears Tests using self-obtained urine samples and vaginal swabs are also highly reliable and are preferred by most women as being less invasive In men, a swab is inserted through the penile opening, and the extracted fluid is analyzed to detect the presence of Chlamydia Antibiotics other than penicillin are highly effective in eradicating Chlamydia infections Gonorrhea Characterized by a discharge and burning urination If left untreated, it can give rise to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility Outside of the body, the bacteria die within a minute In rare cases, it is contracted by contact with a most, warm towel or sheet used immediately beforehand by an infected person Pharyngeal Gonorrhea: a gonorrheal infection of the pharynx (the cavity leading from the mouth and nasal passages to the larynx and esophagus) that is characterized by a sore throat Gonorrhea is less likely to be spread by vaginal discharge than by penile discharge, yet is it still highly contagious The risks of women are apparently greater because they retain infected semen in the vagina Most men experience symptoms within two to five days after infection Symptoms include a penile discharge that is clear at first, within a day it turns yellow to yellow-green, thickens and becomes pus-like Urethra becomes inflames, and urination is accompanied by burning sensation Initial symptoms of gonorrhea usually abate within a few weeks without treatment, leading people to think of gonorrhea as being no worse than a bad cold however, the bacteria usually continues to damage the body even though the symptoms have faded Cervicitis: inflammation of the cervix May cause a yellowish-green pus-like discharge that irritates the vulva About 80% of women who contract gonorrhea have no symptoms during the early stages of the infection Epididymitis: inflammation of the epididymis In men Can cause infertility problems Fever may also be present Occasionally the kidneys are affected Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): inflammation of the pelvic region possibly including the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, abdominal cavity, and ovaries. Its symptoms are abdominal pain, tenderness, nausea, fever, and irregular menstrual cycle. The condition may lead to infertility. Antibiotics are the standard treatment for gonorrhea An injection of the antibiotic ceftriaxone is often recommended Other antibiotics include ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin SyphilisSyphilis: an STI that may progress through several stages of development often from a chancre to a skin rash to damage to the cardiovascular or central nervous system The spirochete is usually transmitted when open lesions on an infected person come into contact with the mucous membranes or skin abrasions of the partners body during sexual activity Chancre: a sore or ulcer Pregnant women may transmit syphilis to their fetus, because the spirochete can cross the placental membrane Miscarriage, stillbirth, or congenital syphilis may result Congenital Syphilis: a syphilis infection that is present at birth Primary stage of syphilis, a painless chancre appears at the site of infection two to four weeks after contact When women are infected, the chancre usually forms on the vaginal walls or the cervix May also form on the external genitallia, most often on the labia when men are infected, it usually forms on the penile glans, or can on the scrotum or penile shaft Chancre disappears within a few weeks, but if the infection remains untreated, syphilis will continue to work within the b
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