Chaper 10 - Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth.doc

13 Pages
Unlock Document

Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Tuuli Kukkonen

Chapter 10: Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth Keyterms: Zona Pellucida- The nutritious fluid surrounded by gelatinous layers of the chromosomes in the ova. Hyaluronidase- An enzyme that breaks down the zona pellucida to enable sperm to penatrate, secreted by sperm that have reached the fallopian tubes, once a sperm is in it thickens and locks other out Infertility- Inability to conceive a child, usually only applies if over a year period Sperm Mobility- self-propulsion and a measure of the viability of sperm cells Autoimmune response- The production of antibodies that attack naturally occurring substances that are incorrectly recognized as being foreign and harmful Artificial Insemination- introducing sperm into the reproductive tract through means other than sexual intercourse Endometriosis- abnormal condition in which the endometrial tissue grows into the abdominal cavity rather than falling out of the body during menstruation. abdominal pain and can cause infertility Lapraroscopy- medial procedure in which the laproscope is inserted through the navel permitting the visual inspection of the organs in the abdominal cavity In Vitro Fertilization- method of contraception in which mature ova are removed from the ovary and placed in a lab dish with sperm Gamete Intrafallopian transfer(GIFT)-sperm and ova are inserted together into a fallopian tube, conception in the fallopian tube rather than lab dish Zygote intrafallopian transfer(ZIFT)- combination of IVF and GIFT, sperm and ova are combined in a lab dish, after fertilization the zygote is places into the mother fallopian tube to begin the journey to uterus implantation Donor IVF-variation of IVF where the ovum is taken from a woman and fertilized and then injected into the uterus or fallopian tubes of another woman Embryonic transfer- a method of conception in which a volunteer woman is artificially inseminated by the male partner of the intended mother after which the embryo is removed from the volunteer and inserted into the intended mothers uterus Intracytoplasmic sperm injection-a single sperm is injected directly into an ovum Surrogate mother- artificially inseminated by the husband of the infertile woman and carries the baby to term Human chorionic gonadotropin- hormone produced by women shortly after conception which stimulates progesterone, HCG is a hormone in pregnant womens urine Morning sickness- nausea, food aversions, vomiting associated with pregnancy miscarriage- a spontaneous abortion germinal stage/period of ovum- period before the implantation in the uterus Blastocyst-stage in embryo within the germinal stage at which the embryo is a sphere of cells containing liquid embryonic stage- the stage of prenatal development that lasts from implantation through the eighth week and is characterized by the differentiation of major organ systems amniotic sac-the sac containing the fetus amniotic fluid- fluid within the sac that protects and suspends the fetus placenta- an organ connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord that exchanges nutrients and waste between the fetus and mother umbilical cord- a tube that connects the placenta to the fetus age of viability- the age at which a fetus can sustain independent life teratogens- environmental influences that can damage embryo and fetus critical period of viability-a period of time during which an embryo or fetus is vulnerable to the effects of a teratogen rubella-viral infection that can cause mental retardation and heart disease in an embryo still birth- the birth of a dead fetus acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS)- sti that destroys white blood cells in the immune system leaving the body vulnerable to various infections toxemia- a life-threatening condition that is characterized by high blood pressure ectopic pregnancy- the fertilized ovum becomes implanted somewhere other than in the uterus rh incompatibility- condition in which antibodies produced by pregnant women are transmitted to the fetus and can cause brain damage and death fetal alcohol syndrome- maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to mental lags, characteristic facial features, smaller than average brain size braxton-hicks contractions-so called false labor contractions that are relatively painless transition-the point where the cervix becomes almost fully dilated and the head of the fetus moves into the birth canal episiotomy-surgical incision in the perineum that widens the birth canal, preventing random tearing during birth perineum-area between vulva and anus lamaze method-childbirth method in which women learn about childbirth, breathing patterns, pain control and have a coach during childbirth caesarean section- a method of childbirth in which the fetus is delivered through a surgical incision in the abdomen transverse position- a crosswise birth position preterm-born before 37 weeks postpartum-after the birth prolactin-pituitary hormone that stimulates production of milk lactation- production of milk by the mammary glands lochia-a reddish vaginal discharge that may persist for a month after delivery Conception the union of sperm and ovum ova=x chromosome and sperm= x or y 200-400m sperms on average in each ejaculation, only 1 in 1000 get near ovum. Many flow out of vagina due to gravity (unless woman stays prone), killed by normal vaginal acidity, swim against current in cervix towards the fallopian tube. Half of which are in the wrong tube. Only 2000 end up in the correct tube. Fewer make it to the last 5 cm due to the current from the cilia. Ova secrete chemical that attracts sperms which have scent receptors fertilization normally occurs in a fallopian tube Sperm thins zone pelucidase via secreting hyaluronidase. Once 1 sperm penetrates, the layer thickens to keep out the rest of the spersm. conception occurs as the sperm and ovum combine to form 23 new pairs, which carry genetic instruction Optimizing the chances of conception Ovum able to fertilize 4 to 20 hours after ovulation and sperm are most active within 48 hours after ejaculation. Specialists recommend that a couple seeking to conceive have intercourse once every day or two during ovulation week. Less frequent intercourse (36-48hrs) results in a higher sperm count. Man with lower sperm count should wait 48hrs. Basal thermometers: Just before ovulation, temperature dips slightly. On the day after ovulation, temperature increases by 0.2 to 0.4 and it remains higher until menstruation. Over-the-counter kits (more accurate): Analyze womens urine for surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs 12-24hrs before ovulation. Vaginal mucus: Track vaginal lube which (usually thick, white, cloudy) becomes clear and slippery just before ovulation Lying on back with knees to face tp elevate pool of semen and prevent dripping out of semen. Lie as still as possible for 30-60min after ejaculation to help sperm move toward cervical opening. Maternal and Infant Mortality Maternal mortality: die during childbirth and pregnancy Infant mortality: die within 5 years of birth Data shows between theres a link between empowerment of women in society (measured by access to contraception and no. of years of schooling, female participating in national government) Ireland: 1 in 47000 mothers die. Women enjoy 18 years of formal education. Afghanistan: 1 in 8 mothers die. Women enjoy 4 years education. Life after teenage motherhood Teen moms have a lower probability than their adult counterparts (adult moms) of completing high school and post-sec education.
More Less

Related notes for FRHD 2100

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.