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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Cindy Clarke

Chapter 4: Sexual Arousal and Response The following points are the highlights of this chapter. You should have an understanding of the elements of the following points. Hormones Most influential hormones are estrogen and testosterone Hormones are one factor which contribute to sexual behaviour others include learned experiences, social, cultural and ethnic environment Impact of Ethnicity Sexualized barrier, who do we let in and who we keep out Ethnicity affect behaviours engage in, What are the frequency of these behaviours Similar and differing sexual attitudes Ability to communicate about sex Frequency of Sexual Behaviour Celibacy and abstinence – when a person chooses not to have sex Men often report a greater number of sexual partners than women It is generally understood that men generally over report and women under report • What might be the movitation to do so Master’s and Johnson - Four phase sexual response cycle includes: Excitement: Plateau: Orgasm: Resolution: Sexual Response Cycle in Women Excitement phase Vasocongestion – an increase in blood concentration in the genitals and/or breasts Vaginal walls lubricate Walls of the vagina expand Nipple erections may occur and the areolas and breasts enlarge Labia majora thin out and become flattened and may pull away from the vaginal openings Labia minora often turns bright pink and begin to increase in size Vasocongestion may also cause the clitoris to become erect A sex flush resembles a rash that usually begins on the chest, and during the plateau stage, spreads from the breasts to the neck and face to the rest of the body. Plateau Phase Breast size continues to increase during the plateau phase, and nipples may remain erect The clitoris retracts behind the clitoral hood In women who have not had children, the labia majora are difficulty to detect, due to the flattened out appearance, whereas the labia minora often turn bright red In women who have had children, the labia majora become very engorged with blood and turn a darker red Orgasm phase Vasocongestion in the pelvis creates an orgasmic platform in the lower third of the vagina, labia minora and uterus When the pressure reaches a certain point, a reflex in the surrounding muscles is set off, causing contractions Muscle contractions (myotonia) cause pleasurable orgasmic sensations Contractions typically last longer in women than men During orgasm the body may spasm which could involve the face, hands and feet Resolution Phase Body returns to preexcitement conditions Blood leaves the genitals and erections disappear, muscles relax and heart and breathing rates return to normal Some women can return to the orgasmic phase and experience multiple orgasms Master’s and Johnson suggest multiple orgasms more likely to occur with manual stimulation rather than penile-vaginal intercourse Clitoris returns to original size but remains sensitive for several minutes Sexual Response Cycle in Men Excitement phase The excitement phase is often short Swelling of the penis due to an increase of blood Testicles also increase in size, up to 50 % Dartos and cremastic muscles pull the testicles closer to the body to avoid injury Plateau Phase Changes which occurred in the excitement phase continue Some men may experience a sex flush or nipple erection Prior to orgasm, the glans penis becomes engorged and a few drops of pre-ejaculatory fluid may appear on the head of the penis Orgasm Phase Orgasm and ejaculation do not always occur together Some men are capable of two to sixteen orgasms prior to ejaculation If orgasm and ejaculation occur at the same time, ejaculation can occur in two stages First stage, lasting a few seconds, there are contractions in the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland Contractions led to ejaculatory inevitability; feeling that ejaculation can no longer be controlled Semen is forced out of the urethra by
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