chapter 16.doc

8 Pages
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Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2100
Professor
Cindy Clarke

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Description
Chapter 16 - Sexual Coercion Sexual Images and Selling Sex The following information includes the key elements of the chapter. The textbook will provide you with further details about each area. Consider these notes as a guide for reviewing the chapter Cultural myths that Support Sexual Assault A woman who goes to the home or apartment of a man on their first date implies that she is willing to have sex Any woman can be assaulted One reason the woman falsely report sexual assault is that they frequently have a need to call attention to themselves Any healthy woman can successfully resist an assailant if she really wants to When women walk around braless, wearing short skirts and tight tops, they are asking for trouble. The majority of individuals sexually assaulted, have a reputation for being promiscuous. If a girl engages in necking or petting and she lets thinks get out of hand, it is her own fault if her partner forces sex on her. Women who are sexually assaulted while hitchhiking get what they deserve. A woman who is stuck-up and thinks she is too good to talk to guys on the street deserves to be taught a lesson. Many women have an unconscious wish to be sexually assaulted, and may then unconsciously set up a situation in which they are likely to be attacked. If a woman becomes drunk at a party she is “fair game” Many woman lie about sexual assault because they are angry with the male or discover they are pregnant and want to preserve their reputation. Sexual assault Elements of sexual assault include: lack of consent, force or threat of force, Also, but not always, vaginal penetration Stranger sexual assault Acquaintance sexual assault Language of sexual trauma Level 1 – touching, kissing, and oral, vaginal, and anal sex Level 2 – sexual assault with a weapon Level 3 – aggravated sexual assault Level 4 – victim is maimed and disfigured Incidence of Sexual Assault In Canada in 2002; (latest statistics available) 27,100 sexual offences reported to the police 88 % level 1 offences 2 % were Level 2 and Level 3 offences 10 % were other sexual offences Theories and Attitude: Why does sexual assault occur? 1) Disease Model: disease or intoxication causal factor Find sick individuals and rehabilitate them 2) Blaming the Victim: victims make themselves vulnerable to assault, ie, how look dress, act, or walk 3) Feminist theory: keeping women in their place: social, economic and political separation of genders, women are weak, men are strong 4) Balance of Power: sexual assault is an expression of power differentials in society Men feel disempowered by changes in society Goal: get an accurate assessment of attitude toward sexual assault Research tools: written vignettes, mock trials, videotaped scenarios, still photography, and newspaper reports Assault on Campus Alcohol use is a strong predictor of acquaintance rape Consumption by predator, victim or both Alcohol and drugs reportedly have been given in an attempt to obtain sex If drunk, a woman more likely to blame self Man that is drunk is seen as less responsible Effects of Sexual Assault - trauma syndrome Symtomology: physical, behavioral, and or sexual problems Acute phase, victim fearful of being alone, fearful of strangers, depressed, anxious, shock, disbelief, humiliation, shame, self-blame. Younger victims more likely to talk about the experience Women victims of acquaintance assault often report more depression, guilt and decrease in confidence Long-term reorganization: stage two, involves restoring order and control, sexual issues Silent Reaction Carrying the experience silently Longer takes to confide, longer the recovery period Some victims deny and repress until they feel emotionally safe Spouses and special populations Does marital rape (sexual assault) exist? Yes, but many countries this is not illegal, husbands feel they should have sexual access at any time, use sex to degrade and dominace, also other abuse with this type Lesbians: assimilate experience of rape into own self-image Other woman Woman with disabilities Prostitutes Partners Reaction Partner often has feelings of anger, frustration and revenge Feelings of helplessness Acquaintance assault: loose trust in partner Often avoid addressing it Stable and supportive partner can recover more quickly Male Sexual Assault Psychological or pressured contact with women Expression of power, show of strength Raise question of sexual orientation, less a real man Risk of post assault suicide is higher for men than woman Prison assault, post-traumatic stress disorder Treatment of Sexual Assailants Successful programs include: Skill based training, like problem solving skills Modelling positive behaviour Non-punitive Modify antecedents to criminal behaviour, ie drugs or alcohol Supervised community living Register as a sex offender Treating the perpetrator Shock treatment and psychotherapy, Behavioural treatment Support groups Depo Provera Accept responsibility for their actions Sexual Assault Coercive verbal pressure tactics Using alcohol and rugs to loosen a partner’s reluctance to have sex Using obligations, expectations and guilt Choosing to report sexual assault Pros and cons Police interview Medical interview, Court prep Court testimony Emotional and physical healing Avoiding attack Expectations that you will fight back Submit to attack, increased sense of guilt or self-blame Escape, yell, scream, Sexual abuse of children Exhibitionism, kissing, fondling and sexual touching Oral, anal, and vaginal intercourse Abusers: Majority of abusers are male Female abusers may go undetected Child sex trade Pedophilia – attraction to children Incest Marriage or sexual relations between people who are closely related Types: Father-daughter: begins with cuddling and embracing, happens when a father has been arguing with wife or drinking, force is not used often but child can be injured by being overwhelmed physically by father, Brother-sister: most common form of incest, usually brother initiates it, they may think it is natural and not wrong Mother-son: less common, boys less likely to report it, Family factors: usually occurs with a family disruption ie stress, abuse, losing job for parents, marriages of incest families the father is usually dominant, wife usually sexually rejects the hu
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