Chapter 4 Summary.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2110
Agnieszka Woznia

Chapter 4: Parents and Families  Facts: » All parents (and siblings) experience emotions in different orders and at different intensities » Professionals should help parents be more involved in decision making for their family » Informal sources of support (extended family/friends) are often more effective than professional support for family members » Teachers and parents should be in contact as soon as possible and work as a team  Professionals Changing Views of Parents » Causation between child and adult behaviour is a two way street › Infant temperaments may have an effect on the family members, just as family member behaviour may have an effect on the child with an exceptionality » Family can have a positive influence on the educational process › Preserve natural parent-child relationship for healthy, beneficial relationship › Parents can provide inside information that educators/professionals are unable to see › Table 4.1 importance for Families and Teachers in their partnership • Families: provide personal information to teachers to help them understand the child, help find discipline strategies that work best, reinforce directives given by teacher • Teacher: provide documented evident of child’s progress/success, help establish a goal for the child, educational and communal expertise/knowledge.  The Effects of a child with an exceptionality on the family » Family routines disturbed » Can influence family employment: work hours, promotions, stay at home parent  Parental Reactions » Stage Theory Approach: parents go through a series of stages › Shock, disruption, denial, sadness, anxiety and fear, and adaptation › Argument against: some parents report not going through a stage of denial- in fact they are often the ones to first suspect that there is a problem with their child » Role of Guilt › Parents often feel that they are, in some way, responsible for what has happened to their child- due to the fact that primary cause of may exceptionalities is unknown » Dealing with the Public › Fall into criticisms about how they deal with their child › Public can sometimes be cruel › Story of a child on a plane who couldn’t be quiet- people were rude and made comments regarding the fact that someone should have been able to control the child (commenters weren’t necessarily aware of the problems that the child was facing- made quick judgements) » Dealing with Child’s feelings › Address the topic without making the child feel that the exceptionality is more important than it is › Children have questions- parents should talk to child at an early age, should also wait for child to ask specific questions, rather than lecturing on generalities of their exceptionality › Parents must be honest with their child » Parental Adjustment › Undergo much stress- a result of a complied amount of daily responsibilities related to child care › Before was shown that mothers undergo more stress- now it is not so much known, as fathers have begun to contribute more › Parent reactions to stress: related to severity of exceptionality but 2 main indicators: marital happiness/quality of support and physiological makeup › Social support for extended family members can make a big difference › Unanticipated positive results from raising a child with an exceptionality: • More tolerable of differences • More concerned about social issues • Better parents • A closer-knit family • More philosophical or spiritual about life » Sibling Reactions › Siblings may have a harder time coping than parents: less mature, may be more uncomfortable asking questions › As sibling grows older, their concerns focus more on how society views them and their sibling › Adjustment: varies, may be related to: birth order, gender, age difference between siblings • As siblings are older show more favourable relationship with a sibling of the same gender, and women tend to have a closer relationship than a male sibling › Straight forward answers are best to help child cope » Family Involvement in treatment and education › Family centered model most recommended: encourages families to make their own decisions in order to achieve family goals (consumer-centered) › Views parents as equal partner with professionals › Interactions between the family and social systems on the family behaviour  Family Systems Theory » Understanding through the context of the family; relationships and interactions among family members » 4 interrelated components: family characteristics, family interaction, family functions and family life cycle » Family Characteristics: basic information related to the family › Characteristics of the exceptionality, characteristics of the family, personal characteristics, special conditions » Trends: increasing ethnic diversity (cultural and linguistic), both parents are workin
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