Chapter 9.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2110
Taniesha Burkes

WEEK 9: Chapter. 9– Learners with Communication Problems FACTS • It is possible for a child to have good speech yet not make any sense when he talks; however, most children with language disorders have speech disorders • Some children with communication disorders are normal in cognitive, social, and emotional development • Disorders of phonology can make speech unintelligible or difficult to understand; it is sometimes very difficult to correct phonological or articulation problems, especially if the individual has cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, or emotional or behavioural disorders. • Problems with verbal skills—listening, reading, writing, speaking—are often central features of learning disabilities. The definitions of language disorders and several other exceptionalities are overlapping. • Early language learning is critical for later language development; a child whose language is delayed in kindergarten is unlikely to learn to use language effectively merely by observing peer models. More explicit intervention is typically required. BACKGROUND • Some individuals have serious problems producing a sufficiently clear voice quality = voice disorder, and other individuals are unable to comprehend the language that others produce = receptive language disorder. • In thinking about communication disorders, 3 elements of communication must be considered: 1. the contexts in which communication occurs (e.g., in a group, in the classroom), 2. the functions expressed by communication or the reasons one communicates (e.g., to request, to comment, to reason), and 3. the actual execution of communication comprehension and expression. Definitions • Communication = The process of sharing information. • Communicative function = Acts of communication, such as requesting, rejecting, commenting, arguing, and reasoning. • Communication disorders = Impairments in the ability to use speech or language to communicate. • Communication disorder = an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and graphic symbol systems o communication disorder may be evident in the processes of hearing, language, and/or speech. • Communication requires encoding (sending messages in understandable form) and decoding (receiving and understanding messages). It always involves a sender and a receiver of messages but does not always involve language. ▯ WEEK 9: Chapter. 9– Learners with Communication Problems • Language = the communication of ideas—sending and receiving them—through an arbitrary system of symbols used according to certain rules that determine meaning. • Expressive language = Encoding or sending messages in communication. • Receptive language = Decoding or understanding messages in communication • Some languages, however, are not based on speech. For example, American Sign Language (ASL) does not involve speech sounds; it is a manual language • Speech = The formation and sequencing of oral language sounds during communication. • Speech disorders = impairments in the production and use of oral language. Includes exceptionalities in making speech sounds, producing speech with a normal flow, and producing voice. • Language disorders = problems in comprehension and expression. The problems—rule violations—may involve the form, content, or use of language. • Phonology =The study of how individual sounds make up words Prevalence • Establishing the prevalence of communication disorders is difficult because they are extremely varied, sometimes difficult to identify, and often occur as part of other exceptionalities (e.g., intellectual disability, brain injury, learning disability, or autism). • One-fifth of all children who are identified for special education—receive services primarily for language or speech disorders. • In Canada about 5 to 10 percent of preschool children (2-5%) and students in elementary and secondary grades (5-10%) have speech disorders • Communication disorders of all kinds are predicted to increase during the coming decades, as medical advances preserve the lives of more children and youths with severe exceptionalities that affect communication Communication Variations • Someone with a language difference that is not a disorder is an effective communicator in his language community, whereas someone with a disorder has impaired communication in all language environments, including her home language community. • Children of minority language groups might need to learn to live in two worlds: one in which their home language is used and one in which school language is used. • A major concern today in both special and general education is teaching children who are learning English as a second language, who are non-English proficient, or who have limited English proficiency. LANGUAGE DISORDERS • No one knows exactly how or why children learn language, but we do know that language development is related in a general way to physical maturation, cognitive development, and socializatio. ▯ WEEK 9: Chapter. 9– Learners with Communication Problems • The six theories and research based on them have established the following: 1. Language learning depends on brain development and proper brain functioning. Language disorders are sometimes a result of brain dysfunction, and ways to compensate for the dysfunction can sometimes be taught. The emphasis is on biological maturation. 2. Language learning is affected by the consequences of language behaviour. Language disorders can be a result of inappropriate learning, and consequences can sometimes be arranged to correct disordered language - by behavioural psychology. 3. Language can be analyzed as inputs and outputs related to the way information is processed. Faulty processing may account for some language disorders, and more effective processing skills can sometimes be taught. The emphasis is on information processing. 4. Language is acquired by a biological process that dictates rules governing the form, content, and use of language. Language disorders are the result of a failure to acquire or employ rule-governed aspects of language, and these disorders may be overcome by helping an individual induce or learn these rules. The emphasis is on a linguistic or nativist perspective. 5. Language is one of many cognitive skills. Language disorders reflect basic problems in thinking and learning, and sometimes these disorders can be addressed effectively by teaching specific cognitive skills. The emphasis is on cognitive development. 6. Language arises from the need to communicate in social interactions. Language disorders are a breakdown in ability to relate effectively to one’s environment, and the natural environment can sometimes be arranged to teach and support more effective interaction. The emphasis is on social interaction. All six theories have advantages and disadvantages for assessing language disorders and devising effective interventions. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE DISORDERS • Language disorders can be classified according to two primary dimensions: 1. domain (subsystem or type) and 1. Five subsystems or types of language: 1. phonological (sounds), 2. morphological (word forms), 3. syntactical (word order and sentence structure), 4. semantic (word and sentence meanings), and 5. pragmatic (social use of language). 2. etiology (cause). • Classification by etiology provides two subtypes: primary and secondary. 1. A primary language disorder has no known cause. 2. A secondary language disorder is caused by another ▯ WEEK 9: Chapter. 9– Learners with Communication Problems condition, such as intellectual disability, hearing impairment, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, or traumatic brain injury. Primary Language Disorders • Specific language impairment (SLI) = language disorders that have no identifiable cause. • Early expressive language delay (EELD) = refers to a significant lag in expressive language that the child will not outgrow (i.e., the child does not have a 50-word vocabulary or does not use 2-word utterances by age two). • Language-based reading impairment involves a reading problem based on a language disorder. Secondary Language Disorders - particular communication impairments of individuals with other specific exceptional conditions, such as intellectual disability or autism Speech Disorders • Speech disorders are very heterogeneous. That is, there are many different types, degrees, and combinations of them. Speech disorders pose a wide variety of challenges to the communication abilities of schoolchildren. 1. PHONOLOGICAL DISORDERS o Phonological disorders occur in children younger than nine years. o The cause of the disorder is often unknown o The child does not understand the rules for producing the sounds of her language. o Disorder occurs in about 4 or 5 in 100 children, somewhat more often in boys than in girls. o Phonology is critical to literacy. Learning to read requires an understanding of the principle of the alphabet—that letters and combinations of letters represent certain sounds. 2. ARTICULATION DISORDERS o Articulation disorders involve errors in producing words. o The individual omits, substitutes, distorts, or adds speech sounds. (e.g. Lisping, involves a substitution or distortion of the /s/ sound (e.g., thunthine or shunshine for sunshine). o Lack of ability to articulate speech sounds correctly can be caused by biological factors. (e.g. Brain damage or damage to the nerves controlling the muscles that are used in speech may make it difficult or impossible to articulate sounds; abnormalities of the oral structures, such as a cleft palate, can make normal speech difficult or impossible.) ▯ WEEK 9: Chapter. 9– Learners with Communication Problems o Articulation disorders are often accompanied by other disorders of speech or language; therefore, the child might need intervention in multiple aspects of communication 3. VOICE DISORDERS o People’s voices are perceived as having pitch, loudness, and quality. o Voice disorders can result from a variety of biological and nonbiological causes, including growths in the larynx (e.g., nodules, polyps, or cancerous
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