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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2260
Susan Chuang

Chapter 3 Explaining Behaviour: Understanding Growth and Development Growth and Development - growth means an increase in size, bodily porportions and alternation of internal ststems that account for growth - alterations include skeletal changes of ossification and calcification as the bones become stronger and harder; muscular changes brought about my myelination - hormonal changes support the increase in size and bodily functioning and changes in the central nervous system promote chemical and electrical communications within the body - development is somewhat dependent upon growth but the term relates more specifically to the increasing skills of the individual and the processes that enable the individual to adapt to lifes experiences - irreducible needs are the childs basic and essential needs that must be met for healthy development and consist of; need for nurturing relationships, physical protection, experiences tailored to individual differences, developmentally appropriate experiences, limit-setting and structure, stable supportive communications and the need to protect the future - the 4 developmental domains are cognitive, social, emotional and physical - also need to utilize a holistic response which takes into account each interacting domain of the persons development - physical development concerns the changes in skill development of the body; it depends on growth, including observable increases in size, proportion, weight and head circumference - gross motor skills involve control of the large muscles of the body that allow sitting, crawling, walking and so on whereas fine motor skills concern the skill development of the smaller muscles that allow for hand control and coordination of hand and eye - habituation involves a decline in interest in a stimulus whereas dishabituation is the opposite; interesting to see how infants learn through stimulating the senses - perception depends on the functioning of the senses and the processing of the info gaind by the senses and sent to the brain - communication skills develop from babies efforts to have their needs met; this is the ability to share meaning with others through language or a signing system - advocates of baby signing believe that early communication enhanced by gesturing will expand the childs understanding by promoting neurological connections, which confers an intellectual advantage - language acquisition depends on the child interacting with people and hearing language - cognitive development concerns how the individual thinks and responds and is a process that depends on; schemas, assimilation, accommodation, disequilibrium and equilibrium - neural plasticity is the brains ability to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences - early cognition occurs in a sensorimotor pattern that is restricted by the childs limited experience, perspective, memory and thought capacity - children develop object permanence which is the realization that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight and cause and effect relationships - they begin to represent the world symbolically and move on to symbolic thought - the zone of proximal development involves behaviours that are on the edge of emergence; the gap between the childs actual performance when operating alone and the childs potential performance when assisted by more knowledgable adults or children - emotional development concerns childrens increasing awareness and control of their feelings; the attachments they make are the most important aspect of this domain - self-awareness, self-recognition and self-efficacy all contribute to self- concept and eventually self-esteem - striving for independence or becoming autonomous and self-regulation also are important for emotional development - social development conerns the infant or young childs identity,relationships with others and understanding of their plac
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