Chapter 5

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2280
O' Brien

1FRHD 2280 Adolescent Development Chapter 5 Families Family We can think of the family as a system and the people in the family as interconnected elements Across families parents differ widely in their rules attitudes beliefs and approaches to disciplineIn recent decades American society has changed dramatically and so has the American familyAdolescents in the Family System What do families do Economic unitsfamilies work together to provide and consume Social units they promote the survival comfort and mutual support of theirmembers Generational unitsthey provide a way to accumulate the skills and knowledge of older people and ensure that these skills are passed along to those who are younger Structural unitslink people to one another and to the community Bear care for raise and train children In human society parents and families are responsible for seeing that their children acquire the essential values beliefs and aspirations of the cultureknown as socialization Robert Levine families in every society have 3 basic goals for their children 1 Make sure they survive to adulthood 2 Give them skills and attitudes they will need to support themselves economically 3 Encourage other social values achievement creativity etcFamilies as Dynamic Systems Parents certainly influence their children but children also influence their parents Families form complex social systems of relationships that are constantly responding to changing circumstances ie Not onetoone Each dyadic relationship between two members in a family has an indirect effect on a third member and that member in turn has an influence on that relationship Each relationship has a reciprocal effect on each of the other relationships Positive Feedback Loop a system in which an increasedecrease in one connected factor leadsto a change in the same direction in the other connected factor ieeach persons response tends to amplify the others response Negative Feedback Loop a system in which a change in one connected factor leads to a changein the opposite direction in the other connected factor ie when anincrease in a negative emotion from a son sets off a response from thefather that leads to a decrease in defiance Negative feedback tends to keep a system stable and positive feedback tends to change it Anytime there is significant change in a family member of in a dyadic relationship it creates an imbalance or disequilibrium in the family systemEg Pubertyforces both parents and the child to make major adjustments in their attitudes behaviours and ways of relating
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