Chapter 7-2.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3040
Tuuli Kukkonen

FRHD 2060 Chapter 7 Summary: Memory Memory researchers have long focused on three general steps in memory processing as potential sources of age differences: encoding, storage and retrieval.  Encoding: the process of getting information into the memory system  Storage: the manner in which information is represented and kept in memory  Retrieval: getting information back out of memory  Since there is no evidence of age differences in how information is organizes in storage, most research has examined encoding and retrieval as sources of age differences Working Memory  Immediate memory process was conceptualized as passive short-term storage or short-term memory. The idea is that people have a limited capacity for remembering information  The question is whether older adults maintain this capacity  A typical short term memory task measures the longest span of digits a person can recall immediately after presentation. Studies typically report little or no age difference in these simple and passive span measures  Researchers have also found evidence that, depending on the stimuli presented, older adults perform more poorly on simple span tasks that young adults  Working memory is an age sensitive factor that affects long-term memory processing, such as encoding information into long-term memory  The active processes and structures involved in holding information in mind and simultaneously using it so solve a problem, make a decision, or learn new information is referred to as working memory  Some people consider working memory as a specific store, others consider it an umbrella term for many similar short-term holding and computational processes relating to a wise range of cognitive skills and knowledge domains  Working memory plays an active, critical, and central role in encoding, storage, and retrieval  Working memory as a very limited capacity because it deals with information being processed right at this moment Long-Term Memory  Define: is the ability to remember extensive amounts of information from a few seconds to a few hours to decades.  It is a large capacity store in which information can be kept for long periods  Mounting research suggests that long term memory is not a unitary construct but consists of distinct multiple systems that are functionally different and are served by different brain structures  These systems can be divided into two general types: conscious (explicit) memory and non-conscious (implicit) memory (which are further divided into sub-types based on how they operate)  Explicit memory: the deliberate and conscious remembering of information learned and remembered at a specific time o Type of explicit memory: declarative memory- memory for facts and events. Which is then divided into episodic and semantic memory.  Episodic memory- general class of memory having to do with the conscious recollection of information from a specific event or time  Semantic memory- concerns learning and remembering the meaning of the words and concepts that are tired to specific occurrences of events in time Age differences with Episodic Memory  Because it involves so many day to day activities adults perform, it has been the focus of more research than any other topic in memory development  Researchers study episodic memory by having people learn information and then recall or recognize the items  Recall: involves remembering information without hints of clues  Recognize: involves selecting previously learned information from among several items Age differences with Semantic Memory  Relative to episodic memory, semantic memory is spared major age-related deficits in the absence of disease. Some researchers have found no deficits in semantic memory processes, such as language comprehension, knowledge structure, and general knowledge activation  Semantic memory is preserved in late adulthood because it typically does not tax working memory; people can draw upon experiences in the word meanings or general world knowledge Remote Memory, or Autobiographical Memory  Remote Memory: information that must be kept for a very long time (from a few hours to many years), traditionally called tertiary memory. Includes facts learned earlier, the meaning of words, past life experiences, etc.  Autobiographical Memory: involves remembering information and events from one's own life. These provide us with a personal history and help define who we are Implicit Memory: facilitation or change in task performance that is attributable to having been exposed to information at some earlier time but does not involve active, explicit memory Misinformation and Memory  Fact that older adults exibit the false fame effect to a greater degree than young adults suggests that although familiarity is intact, conscious recollection is not, thus allowing fammiliarity to misinform the older adults' performance.  Source memory: the ability to remember the source of a familiar event and the ability to determine whether an event was imagined or experienced  For example it is important for an adult to be able to discriminate whether she actually remember to take her medication or only thought to do it  False Memory: memory of items or events that did not occur Spatial Memory  Every time we remember where we left our keys, find our way by locating a prominent building, successfully return home from the grocery store, and remember where our car is parked after coming out a different door, we are using spatial memory.  Memory of Location: researchers test people's memory of location is to present them with an array of objects, remove the objects, and ask them to reconstruct the array  Recall of Landmarks: most studies of landmarks involve the ability to place landmarks correctly on a map or other representation of a large-scale space  Route Learning: A number of studies have considered how people remember the way from one place to another Memory of Activities  Research on age differences in memory of activities shows that young adults remember more about both activities and their order in time than do older adults Prospective Memory
More Less

Related notes for FRHD 3040

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.