Course Reader - Chapter 6.docx

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Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 3090
Professor
Michelle Preyde
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 - Population, Food and Nutrition - Erosion, desertification, and salinization suggest that farm land may be decreasing and current production methods may not be sustainable - 890 people in the world (200 million are children) are hungry due to poor food distribution - Thomas Malthus argued that the world is limited in arable land which will keep the population in check - Today, we are able to provide food for almost 6 billion people but natural disasters, poverty, political violence and geopolitical factors prevent 1/7 of people from getting enough to eat - The World Food Summit has a goal of ensuring all people have enough food for an normal, active life but so far, national and international support has not been great enough to accomplish this Food Supply and Malnutrition - Starches such as rice, wheat, pulses and root crops are the basic elements of the human diet - Fruits, vegetables and animal products are a smaller component of diets in many countries (especially in developing countries where ¾ of all people live) - With the current food supply, we could feed more than 10 billion people if nothing was wasted and people did not overeat o This wouldn’t work today because the food is not well-distributed - Starvation often occurs during droughts or when regular food networks are disrupted by natural disaster or violence - Most poverty is found in rural areas - Children in rural areas are more likely to be underweight for their age = a sign of malnutrition - Children are most susceptible to malnutrition, starting before birth – puts them at risk for health and growth problems in the future How Much Food Do We Need? - The body can only absorb so many calories - Every country has a certain amount of food that is wasted - A number of factors control: o How much each person needs o How much each person uses o How much the total population needs o How much the total population uses… Population Size - Population growth between now and 2050 will affect every facet of life – housing, health care, income, education, the environment and the demand for food - How much the population grows will depend on birth rate in developing countries – average number of children per woman/fertility rate - Most population increases will occur in the developing world – death rates are decreasing, infant mortality rates decreasing Regional Variation - Areas with greatest malnourishment are likely to increase the most in population - In Africa, 40% of people are food-energy malnourished has the fastest growing population because of high fertility o Each woman has 6 children on average – way higher than the 2 children/family replacement rate that will help stabilize the population - AIDS haunts the future of Africa o In the 1990s, 11 million adults and 1 million children were affected o May slow population growth - With the estimated population for Africa in 2050, it will be difficult for Africa to reach food security - In the future, farmers will need to produce even more food in order to feed another 3-4 billion people Demographic Change and Future Food Requirements - With birth rates declining, the majority of the population will consist of adults and adults have greater caloric needs - As rates of malnutrition decreases in children, those children will grow to be taller adults and their caloric needs will be greater in order to support their additional height o If world hunger is solved by 2050, average height could increase by 0.5 inches/decade - There will be an increased number of people living in rural areas – city dwellers need fewer calories because they tend to be less active - Over the next 50 years, food requirements will increase by 75% Diet and Food Needs - The type of diet people follow will determine the amount and type of agriculture required Calorie Supply - Depending on the country, the number of calories that flow into a country’s food system ranges from 1600/person in Ethiopia and 3900/person in Belgium o Not actually how much is eaten - Extra calories are wasted, spoiled, thrown away - 40% of food calories are lost in developed countries How Diets Change - As income increases, people demand more food and more variety - With more money, people consume more meat and fewer simple starches. The opposite occurs with low income areas - Course gains will continue to be in demand in developing countries and for livestock feed Meat and Other Animal Products - Livestock consume 40% of world’s grain produced - Grain provides 2x as much when fed to humans that to livestock - Animals provide fewer calories to humans than grains Diets and Health - Poultry is becoming more popular than beef because it is lower in saturated fat and cholesterol - Higher poultry consumption can lower per capita grain consumption because they require less grain to produce the same amount of meat Amount of Food Waste - When incomes increase, food loss and waste also increases - Developing countries lose less than 10% of food - If food losses were kept at 23% or less in all countries, almost 13% of
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